Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children
Article in Press
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an essential sterilizing drug and with rifampicin enables six-month short-course antituberculosis chemotherapy. Despite routine use for nearly forty years uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate PZA dosage for children. In view of this uncertainty literature relating to the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of PZA in children treated for tuberculosis and in adult volunteers and patients was reviewed. Making use of the PZA maximum concentration (Cmax) following various PZA dosages in different groups straight line regression of concentration on dosage was fitted through the origin by least squares and weighted for the numbers of subjects. The fitted line offers an approximation of the likely PZA Cmax that would result from a particular dosage. The slopes of Cmax/dosage of the fitted lines are 1.32 (SE 0.099) for paediatric patients, 1.36 (SE 0.051) for adult volunteers and 1.35 (SE 0.037) for adult patients; there is little difference between the Cmax concentrations achieved in children and adults, whether patients or healthy volunteers, following various mg/kg body weight dosages, suggesting that children and adults receiving the same mg/kg body weight PZA dosage will reach a similar Cmax. Children can receive the same mg/kg body weight PZA dosage as adults. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.