Cutaneous mycobacterium kansasii infection in a patient with aids post initiation of antiretroviral therapy
The HIV pandemic has resulted in unique clinical presentations in patients, and their diagnosis and management pose challenges to physicians in the developing world. Due to limited resources and difficulties in laboratory diagnosis, most physicians treat according to the most likely etiological agent that might be causing the disease. In South Africa, when acid-fast bacilli are detected, anti-tuberculous treatment is commenced. However, it must be realized that not all acid-fast bacilli are Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that there are nontuberculous mycobacteria that can cause infections. Clinicians should work closely with the medical microbiologist when unique cases arise to ensure optimal microbial detection, identification, and patient management. This paper describes a very rare case of self-resolving cutaneous Mycobacterium kansasii infection following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and potentially associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. © 2011 Mitha et al.