Cold Treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Oranges using a Larval Endpoint
South Africa currently exports fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit to Japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures <0°C for treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Clementine' mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. To reduce the risk of chilling injury with this treatment, research was conducted with temperatures >0°C. Earlier South African research had shown that young (6-d-old) larvae were slightly more tolerant of cold treatment and that there were no significant differences between cold tolerance of these larvae in different citrus types [oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; grapefruits, Citrus paradisi Macfad.; lemons, Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f; and mandarins). Due to their ready availability, 'Valencia' oranges were used in this study. When 62,492 larvae in total were treated in three replicates at a mean temperature of 1.5°C for 16 d, there were three larval survivors. The trial was therefore repeated with oranges using a 16-d period at a mean temperature of 1.0°C and a mean of 1.4°C for the hourly maximum probe readings. Three replicates were again conducted and the resultant mean mortality in the control was 8.1% of 21,801 larvae, whereas the cold treatment mortality was 100% of 71,756 larvae. This treatment at a mean temperature of 1°C exceeded the Japanese confidence level requirement and also exceeded the Probit-9 mortality level, but not at a confidence level of 95%. These data support the establishment of a treatment protocol of 16 d at temperatures <1.4°C, commencing once all fruit pulp probes reach a temperature of 1°C or lower. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.