Evaluating Namibian macrophytic algae as dietary source for South African abalone (Haliotis midae)
Thesis (Msc Food Sc (Food Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.
An 84-day study was conducted to find a suitable diet and feeding level for the culture of South African abalone (Haliotis midae) in Namibia. Two experimental diets, namely, a seaweed diet (SWD) Laminaria pallida (macrophytic algae) and a formulated diet (FD) (macro-algae), for use in abalone (Haliotis midae) feed development, were evaluated. The animals used in this study were juveniles (24.33 ± 3.14 mm shell length; 2.72 ± 0.83 g live weight, mean ± SE) and sub-adults (58.07 ± 10.33 mm shell length and 41.96 ± 20.61 g live weight, mean ± SE). The nutrient profile of the SWD and FD displayed no differences in the protein and carbohydrate levels. Crude protein levels ranged from 4.91 to 17.68% (dry matter (DM) basis). The lipid levels in the FD (0.25%) were almost 0.56% lower than that in the SWD (0.76%). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) for the sub-adult abalone ranged from 2.80 to 10.90 and 0.10 to 0.40, respectively. The juvenile abalone fed on the FD yielded significantly lower (P < 0.05) FCRs (0.8) and higher PERs (1.20) than their counterparts fed on the SWD. A similar trend was observed for the sub-adult abalone although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). The relative growth rate (RGR) of juvenile fed on the FD was 25% lower compared to those fed on the SWD, while that of the sub-adult abalone fed on the FD was 29% lower compared to the abalone fed on the SWD. From the daily growth rate (DGR) in terms of daily body weight (DGRBW) calculated after the 84-day period, repeated-measures ANOVA (RANOVA) indicated no interaction between time period and diet. Although slightly lower, the DGRBW for the juvenile abalone fed on the SWD diet (0.033 g/day) did not differ significantly from the DGRBW of abalone fed on the FD (0.079 g/day). In contrast, sub-adult abalone fed on the SWD exhibited significantly higher DGRBW compared to those fed on the FD. Although the abalone fed on the FD was slightly higher in nutritional content, there was no significantly difference (P > 0.05) in the nutritional profile of the abalone soft body tissue fed on either the SWD or FD. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in preference when comparing the aroma of the abalone meat samples fed on either the SWD or FD. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the consumers’ preference in terms of flavour for the abalone sample fed on the FD. The trained taste panel results indicated that there was no difference in the aroma and flavour of the abalone fed on the different diets (P > 0.05). This study showed that cultured juvenile H. midae, readily accepted a FD, producing high consumption and survival rates. The FD still warrants further refinement and testing for it to become a more effective mariculture feed with commercial potential.