Dynamics and Energy Management of Electric Vehicles
Thesis (MScEng (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.
The work presented in this thesis forms part of the participation of the University of Stellenbosch in an electric vehicle project. The thesis deals with three aspects of the dynamics and energy management of the electric vehicle. The three aspects that are dealt with are the suspension system of an electric vehicle with in-wheel propulsion, the traction control of an electric vehicle and the energy system of such a vehicle. An investigation is presented in the thesis on the effect the mass of the hub motors has on the safety, stability and comfort of the electric vehicle. The investigation is done through a system frequency analysis and a comparative simulation. A comparison is made between a standard vehicle and a vehicle with in-wheel propulsion. A vehicle model is derived for the simulation of the vehicle. Finally, a few of the results of physical measurements performed are also presented. The traction control requirements of an EV are investigated. A discussion is given on the parts that make up an EV’s traction control system. A few examples of possible traction control systems are given through a step by step evolution of a traction control system. A vehicle model is derived for both static and kinetic friction conditions. The model is used in simulations to illustrate the need for traction control in EV’s. The thesis presents two methods for choosing a battery pack size, in terms of energy capacity etc. The difficulties associated with choosing a battery pack, using each of these methods are given. A battery pack choice for the specific electric vehicle, is presented. The measurements of one of the required charge-discharge cycles are presented to illustrate the charge and discharge curves of the battery cells used. The management of energy flow within the energy system of the EV is crucial, especially if regenerative braking is utilized. This is to protect the battery cells as well as to extend the range of the vehicle. The thesis presents the evaluation of an energy management system (EMS) using ultra capacitors as auxiliary storage device. An electronic load system is designed to simulate the operation of the vehicle motors. The transfer functions for the EMS and load system are derived and used to design the respective control algorithms. The control algorithms were implemented in both simulation as well as a laboratory setup to show the operation of the EMS. A new energy system configuration is presented. The aim of the new configuration is to solve certain problems encountered when implementing a conventional EMS. The operation of the new configuration is discussed. A comparative study is made between the conventional and the new configurations.