The utilisation of the ash disposal system as a salt sink : enhancement and optimisation of chemical interactions

Van den Berg, Jacobus A. (2004-12)

Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The fine ash produced at the Sasol Secunda Petrochemical Plant is disposed of through a wet ash disposal system. Other process waste streams with high salt concentrations are co-disposed of in the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system. This has led to a steady rise in the salt concentrations of the recycled clear ash effluent (CAE) over the past 17 years. To combat this increase in salt concentrations, the capability of the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system to act as a salt sink, needs to be enhanced. This investigation focussed on ways to enhance the salt removal/retention capabilities of the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system and consisted of the following: • A literature survey of relevant information. • The mixing of different combinations of fine ash, brine and CAE. • Adding CO2 to the fine ash and CAE mixtures. • Investigation to enhance salt precipitation in the CAE and Evaporation dams. • Salt balances and a residence time calculation over the CAE and Evaporation dams. From these investigations it were concluded that the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system could be used as a salt sink for SO4 ions. Up to 43% of the SO4 is removed from the brines after the initial ash/water contact. It was also found that the tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) brine could be used as a carrier medium for the ash. The large amounts of Ca that is leached into the ash water during the mixing of the CAE and fine ash can be prevented by the addition of CO2 to the mixing point. There is usually an increase of 240% in the Ca concentration and this is reduced to only an 8% increase with the CO2 addition. The most feasible precipitation enhancement for the CAE and Evaporation dams is an increase in evaporation. This enhances CaCO3 precipitation, which is the main mechanism for salt removal in the CAE and Evaporation dams. Ca, Na and Cl are retained in the evaporation and CAE dams. SO4 is leached from solid phases in the dams. There is however an overall decrease in the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the ash water. The salt removal of the CAE and Evaporation dams is approximately 57 tons per day. The capability of the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system to act as a salt sink can be enhanced by the addition of CO2 at the mixing point and by increasing the evaporation rate in the CAE and Evaporation dams. Using the TRO brine as carrier medium may also increase the SO4 precipitation capabilities of the Sasol Secunda ash disposal system.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fynas wat by die Sasol Secunda Petrochemiese Aanleg geproduseer word, word verwyder deur ‘n geslote nat asstelsel. Ander afvalstrome wat hoë konsentrasies soute bevat word ook in die Sasol Secunda asstelsel gestort. Dit het tot gevolg dat daar oor die afgelope 17 jaar ‘n volgehoue styging in die sout konsentrasies van die hergebruikte aswater (genoem CAE – “clear ash effluent”) was. ‘n Manier om hierdie styging in die sout konsentrasies teen te werk, is om die sout verwyderingsvermoë van die Sasol Secunda asstelsel te verbeter. Hierdie ondersoek het gefokus op maniere om die sout verwyderings- /terughoudingsvermoë van die Sasol Secunda asstelsel te verbeter en het die volgende ingesluit: • ‘n Literatuur oorsig van toepaslike inligting. • Die meng van verskillende kombinasies van fynas, soutstrome en CAE. • Toediening van CO2 by die fynas en CAE mengsels. • ‘n Ondersoek na metodes om die soutverwydering in die CAE en Verdampingsdamme te verbeter. • Soutbalanse en ‘n residensie tyd berekening vir die CAE en Verdampingsdamme. Na hierdie ondersoeke kon die gevolgtrekking gemaak word dat die Sasol Secunda asstelsel ‘n sout sink vir SO4 ione is. Tot 43% van die SO4 word verwyder na die aanvanklike as/water kontak. Daar is ook gevind dat die TRO (“tubular reverse osmosis”) soutstroom gebruik kan word as ‘n draer vir die fynas. Die groot hoeveelhede Ca wat in die aswater in loog, kan voorkom word deur die toediening van CO2 by die mengpunt van die fynas en aswater. Daar is normaalweg ‘n verhoging van 240% in die Ca konsentrasie van die aswater en dit word verminder na ‘n skrale 8% met die toediening van CO2. Die mees praktiese metode om die soutverwydering in die CAE en Verdampingsdamme te verbeter, is met die verhoging van die verdamping. Dit sal die neerslag van CaCO3, wat die meeste soutverwydering tot gevolg het, verhoog. Ca, Na en Cl word teruggehou in die Verdampings en CAE damme. SO4 loog uit soliede fases in die damme. Daar is wel ‘n afname in die algehele opgeloste spesies (“TDS”) van die aswater. Die soutverwydering van die Verdampings en CAE damme is ongeveer 57 ton per dag. Die vermoë van die Sasol Secunda asstelsel om as ‘n sout sink gebruik te word, kan verbeter word deur CO2 by die mengpunt by te voeg en die verdampingstempo in die Verdampings en CAE damme te verhoog. Die gebruik van die TRO pekelstroom as draer van die as kan die SO4 neerslag in die Sasol Secunda asstelsel ook verhoog.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16450
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