The effect of exogenous protease on the relative enzyme activity of β-glucosidase in oenological conditions

Swart, Elsa Marita (2004-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The distinctive varietal flavour of wines is a combination of absolute and relative concentrations of chemical compounds. Volatile compounds are responsible for the odour of wine and non-volatiles cause the sensation of flavour. Accompanying these senses, a third, tactile, sense of ‘mouth-feel’ is recognizable. This forms the complete organoleptic quality of wine. Several hundred different compounds are simultaneously responsible for the odour release in wine, and since there is no real character impact compound, the aroma of wine can be described as a delicate balance of all these compounds. One of the most important groups of volatiles is the monoterpenes, which play a role in both aroma and flavour. This is especially significant for the Muscat varieties, but these flavour compounds are also present in other non-muscat grape varieties, where they supplement the varietal aroma. Monoterpenes occur in wine as free, volatile and odorous molecules, as well as flavourless non-volatile glycosidic complexes. The latter slowly releases monoterpenes by acidic hydrolysis, but the impact on varietal aroma is considered insufficient for wines that are consumed young. It is therefore important to supplement the release mechanism, in order to enhance the varietal aroma of the wine. The enzymatic hydrolysis mechanism functions in two successive steps: firstly, depending on the precursor, the glycosidic linkage is cleaved by α-L-arabinofuranosidase, α-L-rhamnosidase, β-D-xylosidase or β-D-apiosidase. The second step involves the liberation of the monoterpene alcohol by a β-glucosidase. This enzymatic hydrolysis does not influence the intrinsic aromatic characteristics of the wine, as opposed to acid hydrolysis. Pectolytic enzymes play an important role in cell elongation, softening of tissue and decomposition of plant material. These enzymes are used to improve juice yields, release colour and flavour compounds from grape skins, as well as improve clarification and filterability. Pectolytic enzymes work synergistically to break down pectins in wine. Protopectinase produce water-soluble and highly polymerised pectin substances from protopectin, it acts on non-methylated galacturonic acid units. Pectin methylesterase split methyl ester groups from the polygalacturonic chain. Polygalacturonase break down the glycosidic links between galacturonic acid units. Pectin and pectate lyases have a β-eliminative attack on the chain and it results in the formation of a double bond between C4 and C5 in the terminal residues. From the above it can be seen that enzymes play a pivotal role in the winemaking process. Unfortunately, in winemaking a lot of factors can influence the effects of enzymes. One possible factor in the wine medium is the presence of acidprotease, from yeast and/or fungal origin. This type of enzyme utilizes other enzymes as substrates and renders them useless. Pure enzyme preparations were used to study the interactions of a yeast acid-protease and a report activity (β-glucosidase) in vitro. A bottled wine and a buffer were used as in vitro conditions. Enzyme assays were performed to determine the relative activity over a number of days. The results indicated that even though both enzymes showed activity in both the media, the yeast protease did not have any significantly affect on the report activity. Subsequently wine was made from Sauvignon blanc grapes, with varying enzyme preparation additions. Enzyme assays were performed during the fermentation; and chemical, as well as sensory analysis were done on the stabilized wine. The results confirmed that the yeast protease did not have any significant affect on the report activity in these conditions. The protease’s inability to affect the report activity seems unlikely due to the fact that it is active at a low pH range and has been suggested as the only protease to survive the fermentation process. It seems possible that a winerelated factor, possibly ethanol, is responsible. Thus it seems that yeast protease does not threaten the use of commercial enzymes in the winemaking process in any significant way. Future work would entail more detailed enzyme studies of interactions between protease, both from yeast and fungal origin, and other report activities in specified conditions. The degradation capability could be directed towards unwanted enzyme activities that cause oxidation and browning of the must. The characterization of interactions between protease and β-glucosidase activities may hold key to producing wines with enhanced aroma and colour potential, as well as the elimination of unwanted enzyme activities.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die herkenbare kultivar karakter van wyn is ‘n kombinasie van absolute en relatiewe konsentrasies van verskeie chemiese komponente. Vlugtige komponente is verantwoordelik vir die geur, of aroma, van wyn en die nie-vlugtige komponente veroorsaak die sensasie van smaak. ‘n Derde, fisiese sensasie, die ‘mondgevoel’, is ook herkenbaar. Dit vorm die omvattende organoleptiese kwaliteit van die wyn. ‘n Paar honderd verskillende komponente is gelyktydig verantwoordelik vir die aroma vrystelling in wyn en omdat daar geen werklike karakter ‘impak’ komponent is nie, kan die aroma van wyn beskryf word as ‘n delikate balans van al die betrokke komponente. Een van die mees belangrike groepe vlugtige komponente is die monoterpene wat ‘n rol speel in beide aroma en smaak. Dit is veral belangrik by Muskaat kultivars, maar hierdie aroma komponente is ook teenwoordig in niemuskaat druif kultivars, waar hulle bydra tot die kultivar karakter en aroma. Monoterpene kom in wyn voor as vry, vlugtige en aromatiese molekules en in geurlose, nie-vlugtige glikosidies-gebonde komplekse. Die gebonde vorm word stadig vrygestel deur ‘n suurhidrolise, maar dit word as onvoldoende beskou vir wyne wat vroeg gedrink word. Dit is dus belangrik dat die vrystelling van geurstowwe verhoog word om die kultivar karakter van die wyn te versterk. Die ensiematiese hidrolise proses behels twee opeenvolgende stappe: eerstens, afhangende van die aard van die voorloper, word die glikosidiese verbinding deur α-L-arabinofuranosidase, α-Lramnosidase, β-D-xilosidase, of β-D-apiosidase gebreek. In die tweede stap word die monoterpeen-alkohol deur β-glukosidase vrygestel. Hierdie ensiematiese afbraak proses verander nie die intrinsieke aromatiese kenmerke van die wyn, soos met suurhidrolise die geval is nie. Pektolitiese ensieme speel ‘n fundamentele rol in selverlenging, sagwording en afbraak van plant materiaal. Hierdie ensieme word gebruik om sap opbrengs te verhoog, aroma en smaak komponente vry te stel uit die doppe, asook om sapverheldering en filtrasie te verbeter. Die pektolitiese ensieme werk op ‘n sinergistiese wyse om pektien in wyn af te breek. Protopektinase produseer wateroplosbare en hoogs gepolimeriseerde pektien uit protopektien, slegs uit niegemetileerde galakturoonsuur eenhede. Pektien metielesterase verwyder metielester groepe van die poligalakturoonsuurketting. Die glikosidiese bindings tussen galakturoonsuur eenhede word deur poligalakturonase afgebreek. Pektien- en pektaat-liase het ‘n β-eliminasie aanslag op die ketting en as gevolg daarvan word dubbelbindings tussen C4 en C5 in die terminale residue gevorm. Vanuit bogenoemde is dit dus duidelik dat ensieme ‘n kardinale rol speel in die wynbereidingsproses. Ongelukkig is daar ‘n verskeidenhied van faktore wat die werking van ensieme in die wynbereidingsproses kan beïnvloed. Een moontlike faktor is die teenwoordigheid van ‘n suur-protease, van fungisidiese en/of gis oorsprong, in die wynmedium, omdat dit ander ensieme as substraat kan benut en degradeer. Suiwer ensiem preparate is gebruik om die ensiem interaksie tussen ‘n gis suur-protease en ‘n verslag aktiwiteit (β-glukosidase) in vitro te ondersoek. ‘n Gebotteleerde wyn en ‘n buffer is gebruik om die in vitro kondisies na te boots. Relatiewe ensiem aktiwiteit is ontleed oor ‘n aantal dae. Beide die ensieme het aktiwiteit getoon in die media, maar gis protease het geen statisties beduidende invloed gehad op die aktiwiteit van die verslag ensiem nie. Daaropvolgend is wyn berei van Sauvignon blanc druiwe, met verskillende ensiempreparaat toevoegings. Die ensiemaktiwiteit is deurlopend tydens fermentasie gemeet. Na afloop van stabilisasie is chemiese, sowel as sensoriese ontledings op die wyn gedoen. Die resultate het bevestig dat gis protease, onder hierdie kondisies, geen beduidende invloed op die verslag aktiwiteit gehad het nie. Die protease se onvermoë om die verslag aktiwiteit beduidend te beinvloed blyk onwaarskynlik aangesien die suurprotease aktief is by lae pH vlakke en dit as die enigste protease voorgestel is wat die fermentasie proses kan oorleef. Dit blyk asof ‘n wyn-verwante faktor, moontlik etanol, hiervoor verantwoordelik kan wees. Dus hou protease geen gevaar in vir die gebruik van kommersiële ensieme in wynbereiding nie. Navorsing kan in die toekoms fokus op meer gedetailleerde ensiem interaksie studies tussen protease en ander ensiem aktiwiteite, in gespesifiseerde kondisies. Die degradasie kapasiteit kan moontlik aangewend word om ongewenste ensiem aktiwiteite, wat byvoorbeeld oksidasie en verbruining veroorsaak, te verminder. Die karakterisering van die interaksies tussen protease en β-glukosidase kan dus die sleutel wees tot die produksie van wyne met verhoogde aroma potensiaal, asook die eliminasie van ongewenste ensiematiese aktiwiteite.

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