Van vas tot fees : 'n ritueel-liturgiese ondersoek na versoening binne Suid-Afrikaanse kultuurkontekste

Wepener, C. J. (2004-04)

Thesis (D. Th.)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The need of reconciliation in South Africa is still voiced by many. Along with this need, the absence of church unity between the DRChurch and URChurch, churches which are still divided along racial lines, remains a sad reality. A division which has its origin partially in a reconciliation-ritual of commensality which was inculturated in Africa on wrong unscriptural grounds. Within this South African and Reformed reality the question of this research was born, namely: “Which rituals can be inculturated in South Africa in general, and in the liturgy of the DRC and URC in particular, to assist with the processes of reconciliation and church unity?”. This question is subsequently approached in a multi-disciplinary fashion with a ritualliturgical exploration. The methodological starting points in the research process entail firstly that Post’s liturgical-scientific research methodology of intereference and intuition is used as an overarching approach, and secondly along with this in the initial phase of the research the method of ethnography or participatory observation for the collection of the ritual data. Within this methodology the theoretical starting points centre around the concepts of ritual, reconciliation and liturgical inculturation. And within the field of Practical Theology this research process moves with a spiral movement between practice and theory. The basic theoretical starting point is that within the field of Liturgy a ritual approach is used, and for this reason partners were found within the domain of Ritual Studies to examine the phenomenon of reconciliation-rituals. The ritual theory of some experts on the topic is presented with which the collected data was later evaluated. Along with this ritual theory, liturgical inculturation is used as a critical reciprocal steering concept which also involves both the tradition and theology in a criterium for the evaluation and formation of rituals. With this methodological and theoretical basis five ritual probes were conducted with regards to reconciliation, namely a cultural anthropological, a Biblical, a liturgicalhistorical, an actual descriptive and a South African ethnographic probe. These probes brought several findings to the fore which can, within an African and Reformed context,be systematised within the context of the process from fast to feast as an overarching metaphor. Drinking and eating together, or the absence thereof, coupled with reconciliation, is present throughout all the probes like a leitmotiv and is also the central finding of this research. More findings concerning reconciliation rituals however came to the fore in each probe. These findings are summarised at the end of each probe and will help to stimulate the ritual imagination concerning reconciliation. However, such imagination must remain within a critical-normative Practical Theological liturgical scientific framework. The finding of this research basically attempts to show that a variety of rituals can be inculturated within the processes of reconciliation and church unity in the DRC, URC and South Africa. The process from fast to feast gives insight into the ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘how’ concerning the inculturation of reconciliation rituals within an African and Christian context. Fast and feast, which amongst other things also entails eating and drinking together or the absence thereof, runs like a golden thread throughout all the probes. Rituals showing these qualities of commensality are pre-eminently fit to serve as reconciliation rituals, although they have sometimes in the past had the power to do exactly the opposite. Therefor the finding of this research is that this feature of commensality can be developed within South African and Reformed reconciliation rituals, but in such a way that it serves reconciliation and church unity. And for this purpose some ritual-liturgical guidelines are presented.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vanuit verskeie oorde word die noodsaak vir versoening in Suid-Afrika steeds bepleit. Saam hiermee is die uitbly van kerkeenheid tussen die NGKerk en VGKerk, kerke wat steeds op grond van ras verdeel is, ‘n betreurenswaardige realiteit. ‘n Verdeeldheid wat deels sy oorsprong het in ‘n versoeningsritueel van saam eet en drink wat op ‘n verkeerde onskriftuurlike wyse in Afrika geïnkultureer is. Vanuit hierdie Suid-Afrikaanse en Gereformeerde situasie kom die vraag wat hierdie ondersoek aanspreek na vore, naamlik: “Watter rituele kan in Suid-Afrika in die algemeen, en in die liturgie van die NGK en VGK in die besonder, geïnkultureer word om te help in die prosesse van versoening en kerkvereniging?”. Hierdie vraagstelling word vervolgens op ‘n multi-dissiplinêre wyse met behulp van ‘n ritueel-liturgiese ondersoek aangespreek. Die metodologiese uitgangspunte in hierdie proses van ondersoek behels dat daar van Post se liturgiewetenskaplike ondersoekmetode van interferensie en intuïsie as oorkoepelende benadering gebruik gemaak word, en saam daarmee in die inisiële fase van data-kollektering die metode van etnografie of deelnemende observasie. Binne hierdie metodologie sentreer die teoretiese vertrekpunt rondom die begrippe ritueel, versoening en liturgiese inkulturasie. En binne die kader van die Praktiese Teologie word daar met ‘n spiraalbeweging tussen teorie en praktyk beweeg. Die basiese teoretiese uitgangspunte behels dat vanuit die Liturgiek met ‘n rituele benadering gewerk is. Binne die veld van die sogenaamde Rituele Studies is vennote gevind om die fenomeen van versoeningsrituele te bestudeer. Die rituele teorie van enkele eksperte word gepresenteer waarmee die gekollekteerde data beoordeel is. Saam met hierdie rituele teorie is die begrip liturgiese inkulturasie gebruik as ‘n krities wederkerige studerende konsep wat ook die teologie en tradisie betrek in die kriterium vir die beoordeling en ontwerp van rituele. Met hierdie metodologiese en teoretiese basis is vyf rituele peilings ten opsigte van versoening gedoen, te wete ‘n kultureel-antropologiese, ‘n Bybelse, ‘n liturgiehistoriese, ‘n aktueel beskrywende en ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse etnografiese peiling. Hierdie peilings hetverskeie bevindinge na vore gebring wat in ‘n Afrika-Gereformeerde konteks binne die proses van vas tot fees as oorkoepelende metafoor gesistematiseer kan word. Saam eet en drink, of die afwesigheid daarvan, gekoppel aan versoening loop as ‘n leitmotiv deur al die peilings en is die sentrale bevinding van hierdie ondersoek. Daar het egter ook meerdere bevindinge of roetemerkers ten opsigte van versoeningsrituele uit die peilings na vore gekom. Hierdie bevindinge wat saamgevat word aan die einde van elke peiling, help om die rituele verbeelding te stimuleer, maar dít juis binne ‘n krities-normatiewe Prakties Teologiese liturgiewetenskaplike raamwerk. Die bevinding van hierdie ondersoek behels basies dat ‘n verskeidenheid rituele in die prosesse van versoening en kerkvereniging geïnkultureer kan word in die NGK, VGK en Suid-Afrika, maar dat die proses van vas tot fees insig verleen in die ‘wat’, ‘wanneer’ en ‘hoe’, ten opsigte van die inkulturasie van versoeningsrituele binne ‘n Afrika- en Christelike-konteks. Vas en fees, wat onder andere saam eet en drink of die afwesigheid daarvan behels, loop soos ‘n goue draad reg deur al die peilings. Rituele wat hierdie eienskappe van kommensaliteit vertoon, is by uitstek geskik om te dien as versoeningsrituele, al het diesulke rituele ook soms in die geskiedenis juis die teenoorgestelde vermag. Daarom word voorgestel dat hierdie eienskap van kommensaliteit juis uitgebou word in Suid-Afrikaanse Gereformeerde versoeningsrituele, maar op só ‘n wyse dat dit versoening en kerkeenheid dien. En hiervoor word enkele ritueel-liturgiese riglyne aangereik.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16080
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