The global status of HIV drug resistance: Clinical and public-health approaches for detection, treatment and prevention
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in resource limited settings (RLS) has been successful, utilizing a standardized population-based approach to ART delivery. An unintended consequence of treatment scale-up is the inevitable emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIV DR) in populations even when patient adherence to ART is optimally supported. HIV DR has the potential to undermine the dramatic gains that ART has had in reducing the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients in RLS. Sustaining and expanding ART coverage in RLS will depend upon the ability of ART programs to deliver ART in a way that minimizes the emergence of HIV DR. Fortunately, current evidence demonstrates that HIV DR in RLS has neither emerged nor been transmitted to the degree that had initially been feared. However, due to a lack of standardized methodologies, HIV DR data from RLS can be difficult to interpret and may not provide the programmatic evidence necessary for public health action. The World Health Organization has developed simple, standardized surveys that generate comparable results to assess acquired and transmitted HIV DR for routine public health implementation in RLS. These HIV DR surveys are designed to be implemented in conjunction with annual monitoring of program and site factors known to create situations favorable to the development of HIV DR. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.