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HIV-related renal disease - A clinical and practical approach in the South African context

dc.contributor.authorBihl G.
dc.date.accessioned2011-05-15T16:18:11Z
dc.date.available2011-05-15T16:18:11Z
dc.date.issued2003
dc.identifier.citationSouthern African Journal of HIV Medicine
dc.identifier.citation10
dc.identifier.issn16089693
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/14547
dc.description.abstractHuman immunodeficiency virus-related renal diseases occur in up to 10% of patients infected with HIV. The majority of such patients are black and the commonest pathology seen is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). This is a clinicopathological entity characterised by proteinuria and rapidly developing renal failure and histologically by a collapsing variant of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with acute tubular necrosis and mild interstitial inflammation. It may progress rapidly to end-stage renal disease (within 6 months). HIVAN appears to be the commonest cause of renal disease in HIV-infected patients in South Africa, although the exact prevalence is unknown. The disease affects predominantly black males, although it has been described in patients of mixed race. Current thoughts with regard to pathogenesis revolve around the role of HIV in the renal epithelium and the effects of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor, on renal structures. Treatment modalities available locally include corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and where possible antiretroviral agents. The demographics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic indicate that the risk pool for HIVAN will continue to rise, and with it the prevalence of renal failure.
dc.subjectaciclovir
dc.subjectaminoglycoside
dc.subjectamphotericin B
dc.subjectantibiotic agent
dc.subjectantiretrovirus agent
dc.subjectantivirus agent
dc.subjectbasic fibroblast growth factor
dc.subjectcidofovir
dc.subjectcorticosteroid
dc.subjectcotrimoxazole
dc.subjectcytokine
dc.subjectdipeptidyl carboxypeptidase inhibitor
dc.subjectfoscarnet
dc.subjectindinavir
dc.subjectisoniazid
dc.subjectnevirapine
dc.subjectnonsteroid antiinflammatory agent
dc.subjectpentamidine
dc.subjectproteinase inhibitor
dc.subjectrifampicin
dc.subjectsaquinavir
dc.subjectstavudine
dc.subjectsulfadiazine
dc.subjecttransforming growth factor beta
dc.subjectzidovudine
dc.subjectacute kidney tubule necrosis
dc.subjectarticle
dc.subjectdemography
dc.subjectdisease course
dc.subjectdrug accumulation
dc.subjectepidemic
dc.subjectfocal glomerulosclerosis
dc.subjecthighly active antiretroviral therapy
dc.subjecthistopathology
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus infection
dc.subjectkidney disease
dc.subjectkidney epithelium
dc.subjectkidney failure
dc.subjectkidney interstitium
dc.subjectkidney structure
dc.subjectnegro
dc.subjectnephritis
dc.subjectpathogenesis
dc.subjectprevalence
dc.subjectproteinuria
dc.subjectrace
dc.subjectrisk factor
dc.subjectsex ratio
dc.subjectSouth Africa
dc.titleHIV-related renal disease - A clinical and practical approach in the South African context
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionArticle


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