Die invloed van 'n intervensieprogram op omkeerbare gesondheidsrisikofaktore by 'n geselekteerde groep adolessente dogters
Thesis (PhD (Sport Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.
The continued integration of our global society has caused a shift in human social interaction and redefined the contexts of adolescents’ lives. Adolescents are inundated with a variety of choices at a stage of their lives where they are trying to create their own identity. This critical period of development is highlighted by an increased desire to experiment with adult life. Thus is experimentation not uncommon. The study examines the prevalence of a range of health risk behaviours amongst adolescent girls. It focuses on the identification of behaviours such as violence, smoking, alcohol and drug use and abuse, sexual behaviours, dietary behaviours and physical inactivity that place adolescents at increased risk for premature morbidity and mortality. An intervention programme was launched at the schools concerned in an effort to address these behaviour patterns and to inform learners regarding the dangers of these health risk factors. The sample population was selected from three previously disadvantaged high schools in the Worcester region. Due to restrictive circumstances at the schools, the sample could not be randomly selected and therefore the study is based on a quasi-experimental research approach. A sample of 1805 adolescent girls in Grades 8 to 10 completed a questionnaire, which assessed a range of health risk behaviours. This questionnaire was based on the Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS) and completed by all the respondents during the pre-test. A control and experimental group was selected from the Grades concerned, at the different schools. The experimental group was subjected to a six-months long intervention programme. At the end of the intervention programme a post-test was conducted on both the control and experimental groups. Four months after the post-test the respondents were subjected to the same test, which is now known as the follow-up test. The girls who dropped out of the study as it progressed are referred to as the drop-out group. Information regarding the socio-economic background of the girls, as well as permission to take part in the study, was obtained from the parents by means of a questionnaire. A self-designed questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the state and status of Physical Education (PE) and movement programmes within Life Orientation at the schools. Teachers who were responsible for Grades 8, 9 and 10, completed the questionnaire. To keep track of body size and growth, mass and length were determined and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Blood pressure was measured to determine to what extend these girls suffer from hypertension. Skinfold measures were taken to determine the fat percentage. The 20m shuttle run (Bleep test) was used to indirectly determine the physical activity levels of the respondents. The main results are discussed next. The results indicate that more respondents in the post-test (64%) reported that learners carry weapons on school grounds than in the pre-test. According to the results 64% of the respondents indicated in the post-test that learners carry weapons on school grounds compared to 29% of the respondents in the follow-up test (p<0.01). The pre-tests results indicate that 11% of the respondents smoke cigarettes in comparison to 14% in the post-test (p<0.01). Approximately 9% of the respondents in the pre-test indicated that they drank at least one alcoholic drink in the week before the study was undertaken in comparison to the 22% of the post-test (p<0.01). Regarding the smoking of dagga 2% of the respondents indicated in the pre-test that they smoked dagga whereas 9% in the post-test indicated that they did. More sexual active respondents during the follow-up test (57%) indicated that they used condoms during their last sexual experience than in the post-test (46%). The results of the pre-test indicate that approximately 49% of the respondents did something to loose weight or to prevent weight-gain in comparison to the 25% of the post-test and the 31% of the follow-up test. According the results, 35% of the respondents purported to have PE at their school in comparison to 30% during the post-test and 54% during the follow-up test. Although there were some exceptions, in most cases a tendency existed that indicated an increase in the variables measured between the pre-test and post-test. In most cases the results remained constant between the post-test and the follow-up test. This study can therefore be a starting point for further research into the process to combat health risk behaviours amongst adolescent girls. This can be done with educational programmes in cooperation with several role-players in the community.