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Tuberculosis at extremes of age

dc.contributor.authorSchaaf H.S.
dc.contributor.authorCollins A.
dc.contributor.authorBekker A.
dc.contributor.authorDavies P.D.O.
dc.date.accessioned2011-05-15T16:17:53Z
dc.date.available2011-05-15T16:17:53Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.citationRespirology
dc.identifier.citation15
dc.identifier.citation5
dc.identifier.issn13237799
dc.identifier.other10.1111/j.1440-1843.2010.01784.x
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/14413
dc.description.abstractAlthough tuberculosis (TB) has its highest burden among young adults, especially since the advent of HIV infection, two other groups with low immunity, the very young (<1 year) with immature immunity and the elderly (>65 years) with waning immunity, are vulnerable groups not to be forgotten. This review describes the epidemiology, clinical aspects, public health aspects and outcome of TB in patients at the extremes of age. The epidemiology differs therein that TB in infants occurs in developing countries with high incidences of TB and HIV, while TB in the elderly occurs in developed countries with ageing populations. The clinical presentation may be non-specific, history of contact with TB is often not known and TB is often not considered at these age extremes, and when the diagnosis is considered, disease progression may already be advanced. Anti-TB treatment regimens are the same as in other age groups, but drug dosages may need adjustment according to weight, renal function, liver function and other potentially complicating factors. Adverse events are more difficult to observe and both the young and the elderly are reliant on others for adherence to treatment. Mortality at both age extremes is higher than in the general TB population. For all the above reasons, public health measures to: prevent transmission of infection; identify those infected and providing preventive therapy; high index of suspicion in order to make an early diagnosis; and timely initiation of treatment are important in both the very young and the elderly. © 2010 The Authors.
dc.subjectacetohydrazide
dc.subjectantiretrovirus agent
dc.subjectcotrimoxazole
dc.subjectdigoxin
dc.subjectethambutol
dc.subjectethionamide
dc.subjectgamma interferon
dc.subjecthydrazine
dc.subjectimmunosuppressive agent
dc.subjectisoniazid
dc.subjectphenytoin
dc.subjectpyrazinamide
dc.subjectpyridoxine
dc.subjectrifampicin
dc.subjectstreptomycin
dc.subjectabdominal distension
dc.subjectacid fast bacterium
dc.subjectaged
dc.subjectalcohol consumption
dc.subjectanorexia
dc.subjectapnea
dc.subjectascites
dc.subjectBCG vaccination
dc.subjectblood flow
dc.subjectBrazil
dc.subjectchronic kidney disease
dc.subjectclinical feature
dc.subjectcongenital tuberculosis
dc.subjectcoughing
dc.subjectcyanosis
dc.subjectdeveloped country
dc.subjectdeveloping country
dc.subjectdiabetes mellitus
dc.subjectdirectly observed therapy
dc.subjectdisease course
dc.subjectdisease predisposition
dc.subjectdisease severity
dc.subjectdisease transmission
dc.subjectDNA fingerprinting
dc.subjectdyspnea
dc.subjectearly diagnosis
dc.subjectfacial nerve paralysis
dc.subjectfailure to thrive
dc.subjectfever
dc.subjectfollow up
dc.subjectgroups by age
dc.subjecthealth survey
dc.subjecthearing loss
dc.subjecthemoptysis
dc.subjecthepatomegaly
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus prevalence
dc.subjectincidence
dc.subjectinfant
dc.subjectinfection control
dc.subjectinfection prevention
dc.subjectinfection risk
dc.subjectinjection site abscess
dc.subjectirritability
dc.subjectjaundice
dc.subjectkidney function
dc.subjectliver dysfunction
dc.subjectliver function
dc.subjectliver toxicity
dc.subjectlow birth weight
dc.subjectlung infiltrate
dc.subjectlung resection
dc.subjectlymphadenopathy
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectmalnutrition
dc.subjectmastoiditis
dc.subjectMEDLINE
dc.subjectmental disease
dc.subjectmixed infection
dc.subjectmonitoring
dc.subjectmorbidity
dc.subjectmortality
dc.subjectMycobacterium bovis
dc.subjectMycobacterium tuberculosis
dc.subjectnonhuman
dc.subjectotorrhea
dc.subjectoutcome assessment
dc.subjectpapular rash
dc.subjectpatient compliance
dc.subjectPneumocystis jiroveci
dc.subjectPneumocystis pneumonia
dc.subjectprematurity
dc.subjectpriority journal
dc.subjectprophylaxis
dc.subjectpublic health
dc.subjectpustule
dc.subjectrespiratory distress
dc.subjectreview
dc.subjectscreening
dc.subjectsenescence
dc.subjectsepsis
dc.subjectshock
dc.subjectshort course therapy
dc.subjectsplenomegaly
dc.subjectstridor
dc.subjecttachypnea
dc.subjectthorax pain
dc.subjectthorax radiography
dc.subjecttuberculin test
dc.subjecttuberculosis
dc.subjecttuberculous meningitis
dc.subjecttuberculous osteomyelitis
dc.subjecturogenital tuberculosis
dc.subjectvisual disorder
dc.subjectweakness
dc.subjectweight
dc.subjectweight reduction
dc.subjectwheezing
dc.subjectworld health organization
dc.titleTuberculosis at extremes of age
dc.typeReview
dc.description.versionReview


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