Immunology of infants through adolescents: Responses to emulate for HIV vaccines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The major target groups for an HIV vaccine include breastfeeding infants and adolescents. Differential immune maturity in these age groups may significantly impact vaccine efficacy, and should be taken into account when developing vaccines. Here we review these differences, with an emphasis on the immune response to vaccines for HIV and other pathogens. Recommendations for potential adaptation of current HIV vaccines are also made. RECENT FINDINGS: An effective neonatal vaccine needs to be immunogenic in the presence of maternal antibody, and must induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, neutralizing antibody responses, both systemic and mucosal. There is renewed hope in the possibility of stimulating neutralizing antibodies with HIV vaccination. DNA vaccines are promising for neonates, but will need appropriate boosting. Certain adjuvants and vector delivery systems are more suitable for neonates. Adolescents may have stronger immune responses to HIV vaccines than adults, and will also require induction of mucosal neutralizing humoral and cellular immunity. SUMMARY: Some current HIV vaccine strategies may need adaptation for neonates and suitable product development should be accelerated. Vaccines could induce better responses in adolescents and therefore should not be discarded prematurely. Development of vaccines that have potential for these age groups is an urgent global priority. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.