The management of tuberculous pericardial effusion: Experience in 233 consecutive patients
Aim: We report on the 30-day and one-year outcome of consecutive effusive pericarditis patients, including those with tuberculous pericarditis, over a six-year-period. Methods and Results: Patients with large pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis were included in the study after having given written informed consent. Clinical and radiological evaluations were followed by echo-guided pericardiocentesis, and extended daily intermittent drainage via an indwelling pigtail catheter. A standard short-course anti-tuberculous regimen was initiated. A total of 233 patients was included. One hundred and sixty-two patients had pericardial tuberculosis (TB), including 118 (73%) with microbiological and/or histological evidence of TB and 44 (27%) diagnosed on clinical and supportive laboratory data. Over the six-year period, two patients developed fibrous constrictive pericarditis after receiving adjuvant corticosteroid therapy. The 30-day mortality (8.0%) was statistically higher for HIV-positive patients (corresponding mortality 9.9%) than for HIV-negative patients (6.2%; p = 0.04). The one-year all-cause mortality was 17.3%. It was also higher for HIV-positive (22.2%) than for HIV-negative patients (12.3%; p = 0.03). Cardiac mortality was equal for HIV-positive and -negative patients. Conclusion: Tuberculous pericardial effusions responded well to closed pericardiocentesis and a six-month treatment of antituberculous chemotherapy. The former was effective and safe irrespective of HIV status.