Problems with prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer in the primary healthcare setting in South Africa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of detecting early-stage prostate cancer in the primary healthcare setting, and to investigate whether there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer in Black African men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a collaboration with registrars in the authors' institutions and primary healthcare centres serving mainly a Black African or mixed ancestry (Coloured) population in the semi-urban Cape Town metropolitan area of South Africa. Men aged 50-70 years attending the clinics were counselled about prostate cancer and invited to have a digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay and transrectal ultrasonography-guided sextant prostate biopsy if the DRE was clinically suspicious of malignancy or the serum PSA was ≥4.0 ng/mL. An American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was obtained, and urine analysed using dipsticks. RESULTS: From May 2000 to November 2001, 660 men were assessed (mean age 59.4 years, range 30-82); 60.6% were Black African, 37.3% mixed (Coloured), 1.8% White (Caucasian) and 0.2% Asian (Indian). The mean (range) AUA-SI was 5.98 (0-35) in the whole group; the DRE was recorded as clinically suspicious of malignancy in 3.2%. The mean PSA was 20.39 (0.04-10 000) ng/mL in the whole group, but when two outliers (1865 and 10 000 ng/mL) were disregarded, it was 2.4 ng/mL. In Black patients the mean PSA was 31.8 (0.04-10 000) ng/mL, and without the outliers, 2.1 ng/mL; in Coloured patients it was 2.94 (0.05-50) ng/mL. The PSA was ≥4.0 ng/mL in 9.6% of the whole group, in 7.8% of Black and in 13% of Coloured patients. Prostate biopsies were taken in 21 patients (3.2% of the whole group and a third of those with a PSA of ≥4.0 ng/mL); in Black patients, biopsies were taken in 1.5% and 19.4%, respectively, and in Coloured patients in 6.1% and 46.9%, respectively. The prostate biopsy showed cancer in 43% of the whole group, in a third of Black and in 47% of Coloured patients; prostate cancer was detected in 1.4%, 0.5% and 2.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: That prostate biopsies were obtained in only 19% of Black and in only 47% of Coloured men with a serum PSA of ≥4.0 ng/mL is of concern. This indicates that there is a significant problem in getting men with an elevated serum PSA level to undergo a prostate biopsy in the primary healthcare setting in South Africa.