Stepwise regression analysis to study male and female factors impacting on pregnancy rate in an intrauterine insemination programme
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of male and female factors on the pregnancy rate in an intrauterine insemination (IUI) programme. Data on 522 cycles were retrospectively studied. All patients 39 years or younger were included in the study where data were available on male and female diagnosis, as well as on ovulation induction methodology. Regression analysis was possible on 495 cycles to study different factors affecting the pregnancy rate per treatment cycle. Logistic regression identified variables which were related to outcome and were subsequently incorporated into a statistical model. The number of follicles was found to have a linear association with the risk ratio (chance) of pregnancy. The age of the woman was also found to have a linear (negative) association with pregnancy. The percentage motility and percentage normal morphology (by strict criteria) of spermatozoa in the fresh ejaculate were the male factors that significantly and independently predicted the outcome. Percentage motility ≥ 50 was associated with a risk ratio of pregnancy of 2.95 compared to percentage motility < 50. Percentage normal sperm morphology > 14% was associated with a risk ratio of pregnancy of 1.8 compared to percentage normal morphology ≤ 14%. Female patients with idiopathic infertility were divided into three groups according to normal sperm morphology. The pregnancy rate per cycle was 2.63% (1/38) for the P (poor) pattern group (0-4% normal forms), 11.4% (17/149) for the G (good) pattern group (5-14%), and 24% (18/75) for the N (normal) pattern group (> 14% normal forms). A female diagnosis of endometriosis or tubal factor impacted negatively on the probability of pregnancy (risk ratio of 0.17), compared with other female diagnoses. Male and female factors contribute to pregnancy outcome, but the clinician can influence prognosis by increasing the number of follicles, especially in severe male factor cases.