Detection of sperm antibodies on unwashed spermatozoa with the immunobead test: A comparison of results with the routine method and seminal plasma TAT titers and SCMC test
This study investigated whether the immunobead test (IBT) could, for the purposes of simplicity and saving time, be applied directly on an unwashed semen sample instead of washed spermatozoa. These two methods were performed simultaneously on the semen samples of 15 men with a positive MAR test and 10 men with a negative MAR test. A possible association was found between the unwashed samples, showing positive IB binding (>20%) on the tail and/or head and the seminal plasma TAT titers (P < .00001, Fisher's exact test). In all cases with IB binding of ≥20% on unwashed spermatozoa, positive seminal plasma TAT titers (≥32) and SCMC tests (≥50%) were found. In all cases where the binding of the beads was mainly located on the tailtips of the washed or unwashed spermatozoa, negative seminal plasma TAT titers and SCMC tests were found. Coating of the head and/or upper tail regions in both methods was always associated with high TAT titers and a strong-positive SCMC test. It is concluded that the IBT for IgA, but not for IgG, can be performed directly on unwashed semen and that the position of IB binding on the spermatozoa is of prognostic importance with regard to the expected outcome of the SCMC test and seminal plasma TAT titers.