Effect of HIV infection status and Anti-retroviral treatment on quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants
Serotype-specific antibody concentration and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were evaluated after 3 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Groups included human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive infants with CD4+ cell percentages ≥25% who initiated immediate antiretroviral treatment (the HIV+/ART+ group) or whose antiretroviral treatment was deferred until clinically or immunologically indicated (the HIV+/ART+ group). Immune responses were also evaluated in HIV-noninfected infants born to HIV-seronegative (M+/I+) or HIV-positive mothers (M+/I+). Antibody concentrations were similar between HIV+/ART+ and HIV+/ART+ infants. However, antibody concentrations were lowerin M+/I+ infants than in M+/I+ infants. Nevertheless, M+/I+ infants had superior OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants, who in turn had better OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.