Characteristics of Flo11-dependent flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The FLO11-encoded flocculin is required for a variety of important phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including flocculation, adhesion to agar and plastic, invasive growth, pseudohyphae formation and biofilm development. We present evidence that Flo11p belongs to the Flo1-type class of flocculins rather than to the NewFlo class. Both Flo1-type and NewFlo yeast flocculation are inhibited by mannose. NewFlo flocculation, however, is also inhibited by several other carbohydrates including glucose, maltose and sucrose. These differences have in at least one case been shown to reflect differences in the structure of the carbohydrate-binding site of the flocculins. We report that Flo11p-dependent flocculation is inhibited by mannose, but not by glucose, maltose or sucrose. Furthermore, Flo11p contains a peptide sequence highly similar to one that has been shown to characterise Flo1-type flocculins. Further characterisation of the properties of Flo11p-dependent flocculation revealed that it is dependent on calcium, occurs only at cell densities greater than 1 × 108 ml-1, and only occurs at acidic pH. © 2005 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.