Intimate partner violence in Zimbabwe: Views of service providers contributing factors and implications for social work practice

Matsika, Abel Blessing (2021-12)

Thesis (DPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2021.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major global challenge, and in Africa, IPV is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan countries. IPV knows no cultural, ethnic, geographic, religious, social, or economic boundaries and is furthermore usually perpetrated by male partners who misuse their power. In Zimbabwe, despite progressive legislation to reduce violence against women, the number of IPV cases is growing. There are several factors that could contribute to IPV on a micro-, meso-, and macro-level. These factors need to be taken into consideration when social work and other related services are rendered to abused women. It is against this background that the study was conducted. The goal of the study was to gain an understanding of the views of service providers on factors contributing to intimate partner violence in Zimbabwe, and to explore the implications for social work intervention. In order to achieve this goal, five objectives were formulated and a qualitative study with an explorative and descriptive nature was conducted. The ecological perspective was chosen as a theoretical framework for this study. Ethical clearance was obtained before the researcher collected data in Hopley, a poverty-stricken area, 20 km outside of Harare. COVID-19 regulations were adhered to whilst the data were collected. Three cohorts were utilised during data collection. The first cohort was made up of key informants who were representatives of Government and NGOs or individuals who were implementing programmes to curb IPV in the research area. The fourteen key informants who took part in the study had to complete a semi-structured questionnaire that was emailed to them. The second cohort consisted of community popular opinion leaders who were active in the research area with the aim to empower women and who would report any abusive or discriminatory acts against women. In this cohort two face-to-face focus group discussions were conducted with 23 participants. The third cohort involved seven community popular opinion leaders (who were not part of the focus group discussions) with whom telephonic interviews were conducted. Thus, in total, 44 participants took part in this study. he data were analysed into six themes, namely understanding of IPV, types of IPV common in the study area, factors that contributed to IPV on a micro-level, factors that contributed to IPV on a meso-level, factors that contributed to IPV on a macro-level, and intervention strategies. These themes were further ordered into relevant sub- themes and categories. The data were also verified by making use of triangulation, member checks, and reflexivity. The main findings of the study indicate that there are several factors on a micro-, meso- and macro-level that contribute to IPV. It was also found that the intervention strategies to reduce IPV in the study area remained problematic due to the lack of resources and social work service rendering. Finally, it was concluded that social workers have a major role to play in the provision of services to victims and perpetrators of IPV on a primary, secondary, and tertiary level. The recommendations focus on the crucial role that social workers should play in rendering services in the IPV field and in other areas that concentrate on the empowerment of women, and specifically in vulnerable areas such as Hopley.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geweld in intieme verhoudings is wêreldwyd ’n groot uitdaging. In Afrika kom geweld in intieme verhoudings veral wyd voor in sub-Sahara Afrikalande. Met geweld in intieme verhoudings word geen kulturele, etniese, geografiese, godsdienstige, sosiale, of ekonomiese onderskeid gemaak nie. Voorts word geweld in intieme verhoudings gewoonlik gepleeg deur mans wat hulle mag misbruik. In Zimbabwe neem die aantal gevalle van intieme geweld toe, ten spyte van progressiewe wetgewing om sodanige geweld te bekamp. Daar is verskeie faktore wat op ʼn mikro-, meso-, en makrovlak tot intieme geweld kan bydra. Hierdie faktore behoort in ag geneem te word met die lewering van maatskaplike en ander dienste aan mishandelde vroue. Dit is teen hierdie agtergrond wat die studie uitgevoer is. Die doel van die studie was om ʼn begrip van die sienings van diensverskaffers te kry oor faktore wat tot intieme geweld bydra, asook om die implikasies vir maatskaplikewerk-intervensie te eksploreer. Ten einde hierdie doel te bereik is vyf doelwitte geformuleer en is ʼn kwalitatiewe studie met ʼn eksploratiewe en beskrywende aard uitgevoer. In hierdie konteks is die ekologiese perspektief as teoretiese raamwerk gekies. Alvorens data ingesamel kon word, is etiese klaring vir die studie verkry. Die data is in Hopley, ʼn armoed-geteisterde area, 20 km buite Harare, ingesamel. Tydens data- insameling is van drie kohorte gebruik gemaak. Die eerste kohort was sleutel- informante en is saamgestel uit verteenwoordigers van staats- en nie- regeringsorganisasies, of individue betrokke by geweldbekampingsprogramme in die navorsingsgebied. Veertien sleutel-informante het aan die studie deelgeneem en ʼn semi-gestruktureerde onderhoudskedule is per e-pos aan hulle gestuur om te voltooi. Die tweede kohort is saamgestel uit gemeenskapsleiers wat aktief betrokke was by vrouebemagtigingsaksies en wat enige gewelddadige en diskriminerende gedrag teen vroue in die navorsingsarea sou aanmeld. In hierdie kohort is twee fokusgroep besprekings met 23 deelnemers van aangesig-tot-aangesig gehou. Die derde kohort het uit sewe gemeenskapsleiers (wat nie deel van die fokusgroepe was nie) bestaan en telefoniese onderhoude is met hulle gevoer. In totaal het 44 deelnemers aan die studie deel geneem. Die data is in ses temas geanaliseer, naamlik, begrip oor intieme geweld, tipe intieme geweld wat algemeen in die navorsingsarea voorkom, faktore wat bydra tot intieme geweld op mikrovlak, faktore wat bydra tot intieme geweld op mesovlak, faktore wat bydra tot intieme geweld op makrovlak, en intervensiestrategieë. Hierdie temas is verder verdeel in relevante subtemas en kategorieë. Die data is ook geverifieer deur van triangulasie, databevestiging, en reflektiwiteit gebruik te maak. Die hoofbevindinge van die studie dui aan dat verskeie faktore tot intieme geweld bydra op mikro-, meso-, en makrovlak. Intervensiestrategieë om intieme geweld te bekamp in die navorsingsarea bly ʼn groot uitdaging vanweë beperkte bronne en maatskaplikewerk-dienslewering. Ten slotte is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat maatskaplike werkers ʼn uiters belangrike rol speel in die voorsiening van dienste op primêre, sekondêre, en tersiêre vlak aan beide slagoffers en oortreders van vrouegeweld. Met die aanbevelings is klem gelê op die noodsaaklike rol wat maatskaplike werkers behoort te speel in die lewering van dienste waar geweld in intieme verhoudings voorkom, asook in ander velde wat ten doel het om vroue te bemagtig, veral in kwesbare gebiede soos Hopley.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/123579
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