Attention deficit hyperactivity and oppositional defiance disorder in HIV-infected South African children

Zeegers I. ; Rabie H. ; Swanevelder S. ; Edson C. ; Cotton M. ; van Toorn R. (2010)


Objective: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiance disorder (ODD) in HIV-infected South African children. Methods: Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) questionnaires were used to determine ADHD and ODD severity and a draw-a-person (DAP) test was used to screen for developmental disorders. Associations between behavioural subtypes, psychological functioning, demographic and health variables were investigated. Results: The SNAP-IV caregiver questionnaires showed a 26% prevalence of ADHD inattentive type; 38% hyperactive type and 24% combined type. The prevalence of ODD was 12% on parent questionnaires and 9.5% on teacher's questionnaires. Conclusions: Parents/caregiver-only SNAP-IV questionnaires indicate a high prevalence of significant ADHD (all subtypes) and ODD in HIV-infected children. No significant differences were found between the severity of HIV disease and the presence of a behavioural disorder. The SNAP IV questionnaires and DAP test may prove valuable screening tools in HIV children with behavioural problems. © The Author [2009]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

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