Rectal ketamine and midazolam for premedication in pediatric dentistry
Rectally administered midazolam (0.30 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg) were compared for preanesthetic medication in children undergoing dental extractions. Sixty patients between the ages 2 and 9 years were randomly allocated to three groups in this double-blind study. In one group of patients who received ketamine rectally, intravenous midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) also was administered immediately after induction of anesthesia. The results from this trial show that 30 minutes after rectal administration of the two drugs, good anxiolysis, sedation, and cooperation were obtained in most patients. Although midazolam appeared to be marginally more efficacious than ketamine in the majority of assessments made and seemed to have less adverse effects, no statistically significant differences could be shown. Ketamine showed a slight decrease and midazolam a slight increase in average blood pressures after premedication. These blood pressure differences were, however, considered to be of little clinical importance.