Teoriegebaseerde programevaluering in die ontwikkeling en evaluering van `n alkoholmisbruikvoorkomingsprogram vir die werksplek
Steenkamp, Wilhelmina Carolina
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The aim of the study was to design an alcohol abuse prevention program for the workplace that was based on a sound program theory. Ultimately the study aimed to indicate an approach to the improvement of social service programs by the incorporation of program theory in the design, implementation and evaluation of social service programs. In the first phase of the study the program theory was developed. Literature studies on the prevention of alcohol abuse and on program evaluation were done. This was followed by a survey in the workplace to determine alcohol consumption and abuse, factors contributing to alcohol consumption, workplace factors contributing to abuse and attitudes towards the responsible consumption of alcohol. The survey was complemented by focus group discussions. Eight hundred and fifteen respondents completed the survey. The most important findings were that 46% of respondents indicated that they drink alcohol, nine percent could be classified as alcohol dependent according to the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Selzer, 1971) and 24% of men and 15 % of women drank at risky levels. The most important factors contributing to alcohol consumption were social problems, social drinking and dependence. Workplace factors contributing to alcohol consumption were the lack of control, availability of alcohol, social pressure to drink and the quality of work. The program theory was formulated from the results of the literature study, the survey and the focus group discussions. The all-inclusive program theory was that life skills training will lead to a reduction in frustration and therefore a reduction in the abuse of alcohol, within a positive work environment. In the following phase the program was implemented and evaluated. The program consisted of life skills training, supervisor training and the revision of the alcohol policy. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to test the program theory and evaluate the program. The life skills program was tested by means of an experimental design. The experimental groups showed an improvement in psychosocial functioning, but the differences were not statistically significant. The intervention had no significant effect on the consumption of alcohol. Respondents’ knowledge about the moderate drinking of alcohol improved significantly, but attitudes towards moderate drinking were not affected. Supervisor training was done to improve relationships at work and to lower frustration. Supervisors improved their knowledge of managing a troubled employee significantly and felt more comfortable in managing troubled employees after the training. The substance abuse policy of the workplace was revised successfully. The study contributes significantly to the methodological improvement of substance abuse prevention programs in the workplace and illustrates the importance of program theory in the design and evaluation of social programs. The study also illustrates how a process of formative evaluation can be used to improve social programs. More specifically the value of a systematic process of program development and program evaluation has been demonstrated, including that an in depth problem analysis has been done, an intensive and collaborative process of theory development has been undertaken and a rigorist evaluation design (with quantitative and qualitative components) has been applied.