The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking
This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in the winemaking process. The enumeration, isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria from grapes and wines are discussed. This is followed by an outline of the conditions and measures that can assist the wine producer to inhibit the unwanted growth of acetic acid bacteria in wine, which include the ethanol concentration, low pH, minimum oxygen pick-up, temperature control, additives as well as clarification and filtration. The metabolism of acetic acid bacteria, which include ethanol, carbohydrate, organic acid and glycerol metabolism, and which can form spoilage products, are also reviewed, as well as the interaction between acetic acid bacteria and other wine-related microorganisms.