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Recurrent culture-confirmed tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children

dc.contributor.authorSchaaf H.S.
dc.contributor.authorKrook S.
dc.contributor.authorHollemans D.W.
dc.contributor.authorWarren R.M.
dc.contributor.authorDonald P.R.
dc.contributor.authorHesseling A.C.
dc.date.accessioned2011-05-15T16:00:07Z
dc.date.available2011-05-15T16:00:07Z
dc.date.issued2005
dc.identifier.citationPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
dc.identifier.citation24
dc.identifier.citation8
dc.identifier.issn8913668
dc.identifier.other10.1097/01.inf.0000172933.22481.36
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/11537
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) is more common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected than HIV-uninfected adults. There are limited data regarding recurrence of TB in children. Objective: To determine the occurrence of recurrent TB in HIV-infected children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Methods: HIV-infected children with culture-confirmed TB, identified from 1992 to 2000, were followed until February 2004 for further confirmed TB episodes 6 months or more after completion of previous antituberculosis therapy. Clinical data and results of special investigations were recorded. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was done when possible. Results: Of 87 children, 9 had a second episode; 2 of these had a third episode of confirmed TB. Adherence to treatment was good in 8; 2 experienced hepatotoxicity, and regimens were changed. Chest radiographs were normal in only 2 children after first treatment completion. Bacteriologic cure was documented in 7 episodes before recurrence. RFLP analysis showed 3 children infected with the same strain (relapse) and 1 child with a different strain between episodes 1 and 3 (reinfection). Two further cases had reinfection based on epidemiologic data and drug susceptibility test results. Full comparison of strains by RFLP was not possible because of the unavailability of isolates of the first episode in 5 cases. Conclusion: Recurrent TB in HIV-infected children is common in a high burden TB setting. Both relapse and reinfection occur. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
dc.subjectantiretrovirus agent
dc.subjectethambutol
dc.subjectethionamide
dc.subjectisoniazid
dc.subjectofloxacin
dc.subjectpyrazinamide
dc.subjectrifampicin
dc.subjectstreptomycin
dc.subjecttuberculostatic agent
dc.subjectarticle
dc.subjectbacterium culture
dc.subjectbacterium isolate
dc.subjectbronchiectasis
dc.subjectchild
dc.subjectchildhood disease
dc.subjectcomputer assisted tomography
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectdrug sensitivity
dc.subjectenzyme linked immunosorbent assay
dc.subjectextrapulmonary tuberculosis
dc.subjectfemale
dc.subjectfollow up
dc.subjecthighly active antiretroviral therapy
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus infection
dc.subjectinfant
dc.subjectliver toxicity
dc.subjectlung tuberculosis
dc.subjectlymphadenopathy
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectmale
dc.subjectmediastinum lymph node
dc.subjectmiliary tuberculosis
dc.subjectMycobacterium tuberculosis
dc.subjectpatient compliance
dc.subjectpericardial effusion
dc.subjectpleura effusion
dc.subjectpolymerase chain reaction
dc.subjectpriority journal
dc.subjectrecurrent infection
dc.subjectreinfection
dc.subjectrelapse
dc.subjectrestriction fragment length polymorphism
dc.subjectretrospective study
dc.subjectrisk factor
dc.subjectshort course therapy
dc.subjectSouth Africa
dc.subjectthorax radiography
dc.subjectthrombocytopenia
dc.subjecttuberculin test
dc.subjecttuberculosis
dc.subjecttuberculous meningitis
dc.subjectChild
dc.subjectChild, Preschool
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectHIV Infections
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectMale
dc.subjectRecurrence
dc.subjectRetrospective Studies
dc.subjectRisk Factors
dc.subjectSouth Africa
dc.subjectTuberculosis
dc.titleRecurrent culture-confirmed tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionArticle


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