Early effects and legacies of Cape Colony legislation on black disenfranchisement, education and migration

Nyika, Farai Donald (2021-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2021.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Cape Colony adopted a universal male franchise in 1853, which was subject to income and property qualifications. This decision created tensions amongst the white settler community. After several annexations of black territories had enlarged the Cape Parliament’s sphere of control, black people were deemed a political threat and could eventually rule the Cape Colony as they far outnumbered white people. The Cape Parliament subsequently passed laws that aimed to disenfranchise black voters, restructure local government and segregate black people in the Transkei and drove them into migrant labour. In this dissertation, I analysed the impact of two legislative Acts that were aimed at curtailing black suffrage, (1887 Cape Parliamentary Registration Act and the 1892 Franchise and Ballot Act) on the number of voter registrations. I used the transcribed and digitised Cape Colony voters’ rolls to question the accuracy of claims made by several writers about the numbers of black people who lost the right to vote. I found that the number of black people removed from the rolls to be much smaller that is claimed by the literature. I also studied the impact of the 1894 Glen Grey Act was passed to restructure black local government by creating black administered District Councils. I studied the impact of District Councils on black education in the Transkei and showed that black primary school attendance and enrolment rose faster in districts that established Councils than in districts that did not. Finally, as the Glen Grey Act contributed to the phenomenon of migrant labour from the Transkei, I studied the long-run consequences of the legislation. I did this by examining the relationship between internal migration and non-migrant primary and secondary completion in four South African provinces a century after the introduction of the legislation. I found some evidence of long-run persistence. This dissertation makes new contributions to the literature on South African political and economic history, colonial and present-day education.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die Britse Kaapkolonie het stemreg vir mans met sekere inkomste en eiendomsvereistes in 1853 aanvaar. Hierdie besluit het konflik in die wit setlaarsgemeenskap veroorsaak. Die anneksasie van grensgebiede het die hoeveelheid swart inwoners wat deur die Kaapse parlement verteenwoordig word beduidend laat toeneem. Wit kiesiers het dit as ‘n bedreiging gesien. Verskeie wette is dus afgedwing om die getal swart kiesers te verminder. In hierdie verhandeling ondersoek ek die impak van twee wette wat ten doel gehad het om die getal swart kiesers te verminder. Ek gebruik gedigitiseerde en getranskribeerde Kaapkolonie stemrolle om die bestaande literatuur oor die getal swart kiesers wat van die stemrolle verwyder is te bevraagteken. Met die stemrolle tot my beskikking vind ek dat die getal swart kiesers wat van die rolle verwyder is baie kleiner was as die konsensus in die bestaande literatuur. Die 1894 Glen Grey Wetsontwerp is deurgevoer om die bestuur van plaaslike owerhede in swart distrikte te herstruktureer. Dit het spesifiek ‘n klousule ingesluit om distriksrade te skep. Ek ondersoek die impak van hierdie distriksrade op onderwys in die Transkei. Ek vind dat bywoningssyfers van swart kinders in laerskole vinniger toegeneem het in distrikte met distriksrade. Laastens ondersoek ek die verwantskap tussen hierdie historiese migrasiepatrone en nie-migrasie primêre en sekondêre onderrig in vier provinsies van Suid-Afrika. Dit is omdat die Glen Grey Wetsontwerp bygedra het tot arbeidsmigrasie uit die Transkei. Ek vind beduidende bewyse van die langtermyneffek van die Glen Grey Wetsontwerp op onderwysuitkomste vandag. Die verhandeling maak bydraes tot die literatuur oor Suid-Afrikaanse politieke en ekonomiese geskiedenis en die verwantskap tussen koloniale en onlangse onderwysuitkomste.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/110093
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