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The effects of postharvest treatments and sunlight exposure on the reproductive capability and viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa in citrus black spot fruit lesions

dc.contributor.authorMoyo, Providenceen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorFourie, Paul H.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMasikane, Siyethemba L.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorFialho, Regis de Oliveiraen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMamba, Lindokuhle C.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDu Plooy, Wilmaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHattingh, Vaughanen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-29T06:43:10Z
dc.date.available2021-03-29T06:43:10Z
dc.date.issued2020-12-21
dc.identifier.citationMoyo, P. et al. 2020. The effects of postharvest treatments and sunlight exposure on the reproductive capability and viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa in citrus black spot fruit lesions. Plants, 9(12):1813, doi:10.3390/plants9121813.
dc.identifier.issn2223-7747 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.3390/plants9121813
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/109717
dc.descriptionCITATION: Moyo, P. et al. 2020. The effects of postharvest treatments and sunlight exposure on the reproductive capability and viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa in citrus black spot fruit lesions. Plants, 9(12):1813, doi:10.3390/plants9121813.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at https://www.mdpi.com
dc.description.abstractCitrus black spot (CBS) is caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa, which is classified as a quarantine organism in certain countries whose concerns are that CBS-infected fruit may be a pathway for introduction of the pathogen. This study evaluated the reproductive capability and viability of P. citricarpa under simulated conditions in which the whole fruit, peel segments, or citrus pulp with CBS lesions were discarded. Naturally infected ‘Midknight’ Valencia orange and ‘Eureka’ lemon fruit, either treated using standard postharvest sanitation, fungicide, and wax coating treatments or untreated, were placed into cold storage for 5 weeks (oranges at 4 ◦C and lemons at 7 ◦C). Thereafter, treated and untreated fruit were incubated for a further 2 weeks at conditions conducive for CBS symptom expression and formation of pycnidia. The ability of pycnidia to secrete viable pycnidiospores after whole fruit and peel segments or peel pieces from citrus pulp were exposed to sunlight at warm temperatures (±28 ◦C) and ±75% relative humidity levels was then investigated. The combination of postharvest treatments and cold storage effectively controlled CBS latent infections (>83.6% control) and pycnidium formation (<1.4% of lesions formed pycnidia), and the wax coating completely inhibited pycnidiospore release in fruit and peel segments. Pycnidiospores were secreted only from lesions on untreated fruit and peel segments and at low levels (4.3–8.6%) from peel pieces from pulped treated fruit. However, spore release rapidly declined when exposed to sunlight conditions (1.4% and 0% after 2 and 3 days, respectively). The generally poor reproductive ability and viability of CBS fruit lesions on harvested fruit, particularly when exposed to sunlight conditions, supports the conclusion that citrus fruit without leaves is not an epidemiologically significant pathway for the entry, establishment, and spread of P. citricarpa.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttps://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/9/12/1813
dc.format.extent13 pages : illustrations (some color)en_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.subjectCitrusen_ZA
dc.subjectPycnidiosporesen_ZA
dc.subjectCitrus black spoten_ZA
dc.subjectCitrus -- Postharvest diseases and injuries -- Biological controlen_ZA
dc.subjectCitrus fruits -- Storage -- Diseases and pestsen_ZA
dc.subjectCitrus fruits -- Effect of temperature onen_ZA
dc.titleThe effects of postharvest treatments and sunlight exposure on the reproductive capability and viability of Phyllosticta citricarpa in citrus black spot fruit lesionsen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublisher's version
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyright


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