A design evaluation of the National Policy on Climate Change of Zambia: Awareness as an effective tool to mitigate climate change

Kaoma-Sikaneta, Chibemba Hope (2020-03)

Thesis (MPA)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Climate change has been an important discussion point in the past recent years because of how it has negatively impacted on the environment and sustainable development. Increases in global temperature have melted ice caps on mountains raising ocean levels. Climate change can be defined as changes in regional weather patterns. While weather is a short-term change of atmospheric characteristics, climate change is a region’s weather patterns averaged over longer time periods. In Zambia, some of the main activities contributing to climate change are deforestation, undesirable farming methods and mining activities. Zambia has joined the rest of the world in prioritizing climate change issues which are included in national strategic documents such as the Seventh National Development Plan. The National Policy on Climate Change (NPCC) which was launched in April 2016 is aimed at dealing with issues of climate change and is currently being implemented. However, the policy is not known by many ordinary Zambians, especially those in the rural parts of the country where deforestation, mining and farming activities are most prominent. Though some citizens have limited information on climate change, the majority do not have the detailed and accurate information needed to participate in the mitigation measures and activities outlined in the NPCC. Country responses to climate change have to follow guidelines prescribed by various climate change bodies. Some of these guidelines present a challenge to resource constrained countries with many competing development needs. This research advocates that raising climate change awareness can enhance the mitigation strategies offered in the NPCC which is a cost effective way to change current practices. Within this context, the objectives of this study were to review international response to climate change with specific focus on the major international organizations, conferences and summits that set out the guidelines to member states; to review alternative approaches adopted by countries to mitigate climate change; and to explore whether community leaders in rural areas understand climate change, the contributing factors and strategies for combating climate change as set out in the NPCC. The study assesses whether the policy provides for citizen education and climate change awareness as cost effective mitigation strategies, and to seek early evidence of attaining climate change awareness and mitigating strategies amongst community members. A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to community leaders, including ward councillors, traditional leaders and church leaders, in selected districts to determine awareness of the policy and its content. Finally, it also sought to determine how accessible the policy document is to the public. The overall findings of the study revealed that though there was a general knowledge of what climate change was among stakeholders, awareness of the NPCC is low and many community leaders do not have access to the policy document. Recommendations are offered to improve awareness of the NPCC and climate change awareness in Zambia, which includes: i.enhanced sensitization and dissemination of information on the policy; ii.political will and government commitment; iii.inclusion of climate change awareness in school curriculums; and iv.more participatory approaches to climate change mitigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Klimaatsverandering was die afgelope paar jaar 'n belangrike besprekingspunt omdat dit 'n negatiewe uitwerking op die omgewing en volhoubare ontwikkeling gehad het. Stygings in globale temperatuur het die ys bedekking op berge gesmelt wat die oseoanvlakke laat styg het. Klimaatsverandering kan gedefinieer word as veranderinge in die plaaslike weerpatrone. Alhoewel die weer 'n korttermynverandering in die atmosfeer se eienskappe toon, is klimaatsverandering 'n streekspatroon wat oor langer tydperke gemeet moet word. In Zambië dra die ontbossing, ongewenste boerderymetodes en mynaktiwiteite by tot klimaatsverandering. Zambië het hom by die res van die wêreld aangesluit in die prioritisering van kwessies rakende klimaatsverandering wat in nasionale strategiese dokumente soos die Sewende Nasionale Ontwikkelingsplan opgeneem is. Die Nasionale Beleid vir Klimaatsverandering (‘NPCC’) wat in April 2016 van stapel gestuur is, is gemik op die hantering van klimaatsverandering en word tans geïmplementeer. Die beleid is egter nie by baie gewone Zambiërs bekend nie, veral nie in die landelike dele van die land waar ontbossing, mynbou en boerdery die belangrikste aktiwiteite is nie. Alhoewel sommige burgers beperkte inligting oor klimaatsverandering het, het die meerderheid nie die gedetailleerde en akkurate inligting wat nodig is om deel te neem aan die regstellende maatreëls en aktiwiteite wat in die ‘NPCC’ uiteengesit word nie. Die landelike bevolking se reaksie op klimaatsverandering moet die riglyne volg wat deur verskillende liggame vir klimaatsverandering voorgeskryf is. Sommige van hierdie riglyne bied 'n uitdaging aan lande met beperkte hulpbronne met baie mededingende ontwikkelingsbehoeftes. Hierdie navorsing bepleit ook dat die bewusmaking van klimaatsverandering en die regstellende strategieë wat in die ‘NPCC’-beleid voorgestel word, 'n koste-effektiewe manier bied om huidige praktyke te verander. Binne hierdie konteks was die doelstellings van hierdie studie om die internasionale reaksie op klimaatsverandering te beoordeel, met ‘n spesifieke fokus op die belangrikste internasionale organisasies, konferensies en berade wat die riglyne aan lidlande uiteengesit het; alternatiewe benaderings wat deur lande aangewend is om klimaatsverandering te verminder, en om te ondersoek of gemeenskapsleiers in landelike gebiede klimaatsverandering, die bydraende faktore en strategieë vir die bekamping van klimaatsverandering, soos in die ‘NPCC’ uiteengesit, verstaan. Die studie onderneem om te bepaal of die beleid voorsiening maak vir bewusmaking van burgeropvoeding en klimaatsverandering as koste-effektiewe regstellende strategieë, en om vroeë bewyse van die bereiking van bewusmaking van klimaatsverandering en die regstelling van strategieë onder lede van die gemeenskap te bekyk. 'n Semi-gestruktureerde vraelys is in geselekteerde distrikte aan gemeenskapsleiers, insluitend wyksraadslede, tradisionele leiers en kerkleiers, versprei om die bewustheid van die beleid en die inhoud daarvan te bepaal. Laastens is daar gepoog om vas te stel hoe toeganklik die beleidsdokument vir die publiek is. Die algehele bevindinge van die studie het aan die lig gebring dat, alhoewel daar 'n algemene kennis van klimaatsverandering onder belanghebbendes was, die bewustheid van die ‘NPCC’ laag is. Daarbenwens het baie gemeenskapsleiers nie toegang tot die beleidsdokument nie. Aanbevelings word aangebied om die bewustheid van die ‘NPCC’ en die bewusmaking van klimaatsverandering in Zambië te bevorder, wat die volgende insluit: i. Verhoogde sensitisering en verspreiding van inligting oor die beleid ii. Politieke wil en regeringsverbintenis iii. Insluiting van bewustheid van klimaatsverandering in skoolkurrikulums en iv. Meer deelnemende benaderings tot die regstelling van klimaatsverandering.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108244
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