The prevalence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in ostriches from South Africa

Shange, Nompumelelo (2020-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The overall aim of this thesis was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in ostriches from South Africa. In humans Campylobacter and Arcobacter species can cause of gastroenteritis, Guillian Barré syndrome, septicaemia and bacteraemia. Previous research has indicated that the consumption of contaminated poultry meat is the main route of infection for humans and by extension poultry species are deemed primary reservoirs of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in relation to ostriches from South Africa. Artificially and naturally reared ostrich chicks at the age of 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks were sacrificed, and caeca samples were excised. Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni) was detected in artificially reared chicks, on the 12th week. A persistent presence of Arcobacter (A. skirrowii) was detected from the 2nd until 12th week of life for both artificially and naturally reared ostrich chicks. Additionally, cohorts that belonged to the same batch as the sacrificed ostrich chicks, regardless of the rearing process were sampled at the slaughter age of 10 and 12 months. Arcobacter spp. (A. skirrowii) and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni) were isolated from 56-70% of slaughter age birds. Cloacal swabs were also obtained from live ostriches reared on 30 different farms situated in South Africa (Oudtshoorn). Cloacal swabs were processed with family specific PCR (n = 168 pooled cloacal swabs), the Cape Town protocol (n = 836 cloacal swabs), ISO 10272-1:2006 (n = 836 cloacal swabs) and a selective Arcobacter spp. method (n = 415 cloacal swabs). Family specific PCR determined an average prevalence of 24.63%. The ISO 10272-1:2006 method and Cape Town Protocol determined a prevalence of 16.83% and 0% for Campylobacterspp., respectively. For Arcobacter spp. a prevalence of 18.80% and 39.14% was determined with the Cape Town protocol and selective Arcobacter spp. method, respectively. Higher prevalence levels were determined when ostriches were sampled during spring and autumn, respectively. Higher prevalence levels were also detected in ostriches reared on farms that made use of borehole water. Higher prevalence levels were seen for ostriches reared on farms with wild water birds. During slaughter, Arcobacter spp. were detected at a prevalence level of 73% at post-skinning. At post-evisceration, 73% and 83% of samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp., respectively. At post-chilling, 66% and 67% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp., respectively. Additionally, a second study to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. was conducted to see whether routine testing was required for abattoirs. E. coli and coliforms were also enumerated to determine the occurrence of faecal contamination during slaughter. Overall, a low occurrence of Campylobacter spp. (0.98% and 0%), Arcobacter spp. (1.31% and 1.64%), E. coli (0.13 log cfu/g) and coliforms (0.53 log cfu/g) was determined for all three abattoirs. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. isolated from ostriches and ostrich meat was determined. Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. isolates were generally resistant to antibiotics in the following order cephalothin, vancomycin and erythromycin and tetracycline. The majority of Campylobacter spp. (92.86%) and Arcobacter spp. (80.95%) isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. Overall, this research shows that ostriches from South Africa can be considered as potential carriers of species belonging to the Campylobacteraceae family and infection can occur at young age. Carcasses can be contaminated during slaughter and species carried by ostriches can be resistant to essential antibiotics; ultimately highlighting the need for routine testing of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die algehele doel van hierdie tesis was om die voorkoms van Campylobacter en Arcobacter spesies in Suid Afrikaanse volstruise te bepaal. Campylobacter en Arcobacter spesies kan diarree, Guilian Barré sindroom, septisemi, en bakteriemieën in mense veroorsaak. Vorige navorsing het getoon dat die verbruik van besmette pluimveevleis die belangrikste roete van besmetting is vir mense. Pluimveevleis word sodoende gesien as primêre reservoir vir Campylobacter spp. en Arcobacter spp. Daar is tans n tekort aan inligting rakende Campylobacter en Arcobacter spesies met volstruisvleis van Suid Afrika. Volstruiskuikens wat kunsmatig of natuurlik grootgemaak is teen die ouderdomme van 2, 4, 6, en 12 weke oud opgeoffer en derm monsters geneem. Campylobacter spesies (C. jejuni) is gevind in kuikens wat kunsmatig grootgemaak is op 12 weke ouderdom. 'n Teenwoordigheid van Arcobacter (A. skirrowii) was gevind vanaf die 2de tot en met die 12de week van ouderdom in beide die kunsmatig en natuurlik groot gemaakte kuikens. Monsters is ook geneem van groepe volstruiskuikens wat aan dieselfde groep as die opgeofferde behoort het op 10 en 12 maande ouderdom, ongeag van die grootmaak metode. Voorkomste van Arcobacter spp. (A. skirrowii) en Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni) op vlakke van 56-70% was gevind. Deppers van die kloaka van lewende volstruise op 30 verskillende plase in Suid Afrika (Oudtshoorn) was geneem. Kloaka deppers was geprosesseer deur 'n familie-spesifieke PCR (n =138 saamgestelde deppers), die Kaapstadse protokol (n = 836 deppers), ISO 10272-1:2006 (n = 836 deppers), en 'n selektiewe metode vir Arcobater spp. (n = 415 deppers). Familie-spesifieke PCR het ʼn gemiddelde voorkomste van 24.63% vasgestel. Die ISO 10272-1:2006 metode en Kaapstadse protokol het ʼn voorkomste van 16.83% en 0% onderskeidelik vasgestel vir Campylobacter spp. 'n Voorkomste van 18.80% en 39.14% onderskeidelik was vasgestel vir die Kaapstadse protokol en die selektiewe Arcobacterspp. metode. Hoer vlakke van voorkoms was vasgestel in volstruise gedurende lente en herfs onderskeidelik. Hoër voorkomste was ook bepaal op plase wat gebruik maak van boorgat water en met wilde voëls. Arcobacter spp. was gevind gedurende slagting in 73% van gevalle na afslagting. Na ontweiding was 73% en 83% van die vleis monsters besmet met Campylobacter spp. en Arcobacter spp., onderskeidelik. Bykomend is 'n studie gedoen om die voorkoms van Campylobacter spp. en Arcobacter spp. te evalueer om te bepaal of gereelde toetsing by slagpale 'n vereiste moet wees. Gedurende hierdie toetse was die voorkoms van E. coli kolonies ook getel om vas te stel of fekale besmetting wel voorkom. Die voorkoms van Campylobacter spp. (0.98% en 0%), Arcobacter spp. (1.31% en 1.64%), E. coli (0.13 log cfu/g) en kolivorme (0.53 log cfu/g) was teenwoordig in al drie slagpale. Bestandheid teen antibiotika in Campylobacter spp. en Arcobacter spp. isolate van volstruise en volstruisvleis was ook bepaal. Isolate van Campylobacter spp. en Arcobacter spp. was oor die algemeen bestand teen antibiotika in die volgende orde: cephalothin, vancomycin en erythromycin and tetracycline. Die meerderheid van die isolate van Campylobacter spp. (92.86%) en Arcobacter spp. (80.95%) het meervoudige dwelmweerstandigheid getoon. Hierdie navorsing wys dat vostruise van Suid Afrika beskou kan word as 'n moontlike draer van spesies wat aan die Campylobacteraceae familie behoort en dat besmetting op 'n jong ouderdom kan plaasvind. Karkasse mag ook besmet word gedurende die slagproses en die spesies wat gedra word deur volstruise kan bestand wees teen noodsaaklike antibiotika, en beklemtoon dus die noodsaaklikheid van gereelde toetsing vir Campylobacter en Arcobacter spesies in volstruisvleis.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108201
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