Outcome measures validated for use in stroke rehabilitation in low- and middle-income countries : a systematic review

Schoonraad, Nabila (2020-03)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : Introduction: The use of outcome measures necessary for effective clinical practice and in order to obtain reliable results in research. The commonly used outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation was developed in well-resourced high-income countries. When these outcome measures are used in a different setting, such as in low- and middle-income countries, it may require translation, cross-cultural adaptation and an evaluation of its measurement properties. Objective: Review the current literature reporting on outcome measures used in stroke rehabilitation that were validated for use in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A comprehensive search of the following electronic databases was conducted: Africa Journal Online; AOSIS Publishing; BioMed Central; Cochrane Library; EBSCO Africa-Wide Information & CINAHL; PEDro/Physiotherapy Choices; ProQuest; PubMed: MedLine; Sabinet African Journals; Science Direct; Scopus and Web of Science. A unique search string was used for each database. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used when considering eligibility of studies, and the reference list of included studies were searched for additional studies. All the included studies underwent an evaluation of its quality. A self-developed data extraction sheet was used for information gathering and analysis. The studies reporting on the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process was assessed against the criteria as stated in Beaton et al., (2000). A critical appraisal tool as described by Brink and Louw (2011) was applied to all included studies in order to evaluate its methodological procedures. The reported results of statistical tests were used to interpret the psychometric properties of each outcome measure. The updated criteria for good measurement properties as reported in COSMIN (Mokkink et al., 2018) was used as a reference in this analysis. Results: A total of 24 studies were included in this review. Three studies took place in low income countries (Uganda and Benin). Four studies occurred in lower middle-income countries (India, Philippines and Nigeria). The remaining 16 studies took place in upper middleincome countries (Iran, Colombia, Thailand, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey and China). After the evaluation of the methodological quality of the studies and an analysis of the psychometric properties of its outcome measures and correlation with reference standards, a final total of 23 outcome measures was recommended for use in LMICs. These outcome measures include: ABILOCO; 10MWT; BESTest; Berg Balance Scale; Postural Assessment Scale; Community Balance and Mobility scale; MiniBESTest; FIM-P; Comfortable gait speed; Maximal gait speed; Comfortable ascending stairs; Maximal ascending stairs; Comfortable descending stairs; Maximal descending stairs; Timed ‘Up and Go’; Modified Ashworth Scale; Modified Modified Ashworth Scale; Persian version of the Modified Ashworth Scale; Bahasa Malaysian version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Ibadan version of the Stroke Specific Pain Scale; Upright Motor Control Test (Knee Flexion subscale & Knee Extension subscale); Wisconsin Gait Scale. Conclusion: These outcome measures have been validated for use in lower income countries and within a specific sample population only. It is advised that clinicians and researchers consider these factors when choosing an outcome measure in the management of people with stroke. This is to ensure the measurement property of the outcome measure and thus obtain credible results.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Inleiding: Die gebruik van uitkomsmaatreëls wat nodig is vir effektiewe kliniese praktyk en om betroubare resultate in navorsing te verkry. Die algemeen gebruikte uitkomsmaatstawwe vir beroerterehabilitasie is ontwikkel in lande met 'n hoë inkomste wat goed voorsien het. As hierdie uitkomsmaatstawwe in 'n ander omgewing gebruik word, soos in lande met 'n lae en middelinkomste, kan dit vertaling, kruiskulturele aanpassing en 'n evaluering van die meeteienskappe daarvan vereis. Doelwitte: Om die uitkomsmaatreëls wat tydens beroerterehabilitasie gebruik is, te hersien wat gevalideer is vir gebruik in lande met lae en middelinkomste. Metodiek: 'n Uitgebreide ondersoek na die volgende elektroniese databasisse is uitgevoer: Africa Journal Online; AOSIS Publishing; BioMed Central; Cochrane Library; EBSCO Africa-Wide Information & CINAHL; PEDro/Physiotherapy Choices; ProQuest; PubMed: MedLine; Sabinet African Journals; Science Direct; Scopus and Web of Science. 'n Unieke soekstring is vir elke databasis gebruik. Spesifieke insluiting en uitsluitingskriteria is gebruik by die oorweging van die geskiktheid van studies, en die verwysingslys van ingesluit studies het gesoek na aanvullende studies. Al die studies wat ingesluit is, het die kwaliteit daarvan beoordeel. 'n Selfontwikkelde dataonttrekkingsblad is gebruik vir die insameling en ontleding van inligting. Die studies wat verslag gedoen het oor die vertaal- en kruiskulturele aanpassingsproses is beoordeel aan die hand van die kriteria soos uiteengesit in Beaton et al (2000). 'n Kritiese waarderingsinstrument soos beskryf deur Brink en Louw (2011) is op alle ingesluit studies toegepas om die metodologiese prosedures daarvan te evalueer. Die gemelde resultate van statistiese toetse is gebruik om die psigometriese eienskappe van elke uitkomsmaatstaf te interpreteer. Die bygewerkte kriteria vir goeie metingseienskappe soos gemeld in COSMIN (Mokkink et al., 2018) is as verwysing in hierdie analise gebruik. Resultate: Altesaam 24 studies is by hierdie oorsig ingesluit. Drie studies het in lande met lae inkomste (Uganda en Benin) plaasgevind. Vier studies het in lande met laer middelinkomste (Indië, Filippyne en Nigerië) voorgekom. Die oorblywende 16 studies het in lande met die boonste middelinkomste (Iran, Colombia, Thailand, Brasilië, Suid-Afrika, Turkye en China) plaasgevind. Na die evaluering van die metodologiese kwaliteit van die studies en 'n ontleding van die psigometriese eienskappe van die uitkomsmaatstawwe en korrelasie met verwysingstandaarde, word 'n finale totaal van 23 uitkomsmetings aanbeveel vir gebruik in LMIC's. Hierdie uitkomsmaatreëls sluit in: ABILOCO; 10MWT; BESTest; Berg balansskaal; Posturale assesseringskaal; Gemeenskapsbalans- en mobiliteitsskaal; MiniBESTest; FIM-P; Gemaklike gangspoed; Maksimum gangspoed; Gemaklike opgaande trappe; Maksimum opgaande trappe; Gemaklike trappende dalende; Maksimum dalende trappe; Tydopgestel 'Up and Go'; Gewysigde Ashworth-skaal; Gewysigde Gewysigde Ashworth-skaal; Persiese weergawe van die gewysigde Ashworthskaal; Bahasa Maleisiese weergawe van die Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Ibadanweergawe van die beroerte-spesifieke pynskaal; Staanmotoriese beheertoets (subskaal vir knie-flexie en onderskaal vir knie-uitbreiding); Wisconsin-gangskaal. Gevolgtrekking: Hierdie uitkomsmaatreëls is slegs geldig vir gebruik in lande met laer inkomste en binne 'n spesifieke steekproefpopulasie. Dit word aanbeveel dat klinici en navorsers hierdie faktore in ag neem by die keuse van 'n uitkomsmaatreël in die hantering van mense met 'n beroerte. Dit is om die meeteienskap van die uitkomsmaat te verseker en sodoende geloofwaardige resultate te verkry.

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