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From livestock to game farming : farmers understandings of land use changes, sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation in the Ubuntu Municipality, South Africa

dc.contributor.advisorWalker, Cherrylen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorManyani, Charmaine Rudo Sanelisiween_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Sociology & Social Anthropology.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-19T11:32:28Z
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-28T12:08:09Z
dc.date.available2020-02-19T11:32:28Z
dc.date.available2020-04-28T12:08:09Z
dc.date.issued2020-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107892
dc.descriptionThesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Through a case study of commercial game farming in the Ubuntu Local Municipality in the arid Nama Karoo Biome of the Northern Cape, this dissertation has three main aims: firstly, to understand the views of commercial farmers in the Ubuntu Local Municipality on game farming and its relationship to sustainable agriculture in this region, including the motivations of those who are making the switch from livestock to game farming; secondly, to bring to the fore the views of black small-scale and emerging farmers, a neglected constituency in the debate on the merits of game farming, and thirdly, to address if and how the trend towards game farming in the Northern Cape could be aligned to sustainable land and agrarian reform. My theoretical framing draws on political ecology and understandings of sustainable development that consider social and economic justice as non-negotiable imperatives, along with respect for planetary boundaries. The growth of game farming in South Africa has been variously attributed to socio-political, economic, climatic and ecological reasons. There are an estimated 11,500 wildlife ranches in South Africa that, according to Wildlife Ranching South Africa (2017), have converted 20 million hectares of marginal land to productive land. However, despite its reported success, game farming in South Africa is mired in controversy. While its proponents argue that farmers who are making the switch are aligned with sustainable agricultural practices and the promotion of biodiversity conservation, its critics argue that game farming is being driven by other motives, including evading land reform through manipulating conservation narratives. Analysing and contextualising these debates in an under-researched area with a very specific history and ecology is thus an important task. In addressing these issues, I have used a case study design that utilised a mixed-methods approach to gathering data. Methods utilised included a self-administered survey of commercial farmers in the Ubuntu Local Municipality, in-depth interviews with commercial and small-scale farmers as well as officials and other key informants, focus group discussions, observations and documentary analysis. My main findings are, firstly, that the switch to game farming in the Ubuntu Local Municipality has been spurred primarily by economic factors (increasing production costs, market fluctuations, etc.); however, ecological considerations in terms of managing drought and climate change concerns and the depletion of the natural veld are also encouraging farmers to diversify their income portfolios. Secondly, game farming is, no more or less complicit in unsustainable farming than other forms of farming; it depends on how it is practised. In a context of social-ecological change it could contribute to more sustainable land management and local economic development in arid environments (for instance through new forms of employment) if appropriately regulated, as part of a larger suite of more effectively supported land and agrarian reform projects. Thirdly, small-scale farmers’ entry into commercial livestock farming is severely hampered by their lack of access to critical resources that include land, financial assistance, extension support and production skills. In this context game farming is seen as beyond what they can envisage or aspire to in the Ubuntu Local Municipality.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Deur middel van ‘n gevallestudie van kommersiële wildboerdery in die Ubuntu Plaaslike Munisipaliteit in die dorre Nama Karoo Bioom van die Noord-Kaap, het hierdie proefskrif drie hoofdoelstellings: eerstens, om die siening van kommersiële boere in die Ubuntu Plaaslike Munisipaliteit oor wildboerdery en dié se verhouding tot volhoubare landbou in hierdie streek te verstaan, insluitend die motiverings van diegene wat die oorskakeling van vee na wildboerdery doen; tweedens, om die standpunte van swart en opkomende boere na vore te bring, 'n verwaarloosde kiesafdeling in die debat oor die meriete van wildboerdery, en derdens om aan te spreek óf en hoe die neiging na wildboerdery in die Noord-Kaap kan bydra tot volhoubare grond- en landbouhervorming. My teoretiese raamwerk berus op politieke ekologie en begrippe van volhoubare ontwikkeling wat sosiale en ekonomiese geregtigheid as ononderhandelbare noodsaaklikhede beskou, tesame met respek vir planetêre grense. Die groei van wildboerdery in Suid-Afrika word onderskeidelik toegeskryf aan sosio-politieke, ekonomiese, klimaats en ekologiese redes. Daar is na raming 11,500 wildplase in Suid-Afrika wat, volgens Wildbedryf Suid-Afrika (2017), 20 miljoen hektaar marginale grond na produktiewe grond omgeskakel het. Ondanks wildboerdery se gerapporteerde sukses, word dit in Suid-Afrika betwis. Terwyl die voorstanders daarvan argumenteer dat boere wat oorskakel in lyn is met volhoubare landboupraktyke en die bevordering van die bewaring van biodiversiteit, meen kritici dat wildboerdery deur ander motiewe gedryf word, insluitend die ontwyking van grondhervorming deur die misgebruik van bewaring verhaaltrante. Dit is dus ‘n belangrike taak om hierdie debatte te analiseer en te kontekstualiseer in ‘n onder-ondersoekte gebied met ‘n baie spesifieke geskiedenis en ekologie. In die aanspreking van hierdie kwessies het ek ‘n gevallestudie-ontwerp gebruik wat ‘n gemengde-metodes-benadering aangewend het om data in te samel. Metodes wat gebruik is sluit in ‘n self-geadministreerde opname van kommersiële boere in die Ubuntu Plaaslike Munisipaliteit, in-diepte onderhoude met kommersiële en kleinboere, sowel as amptenare en ander sleutel informante, fokusgroep besprekings, waarnemings en dokumentêre analise. My belangrikste bevindings is, eerstens, dat die oorskakeling na wildboerdery in die Ubuntu Plaaslike Munisipaliteit hoofsaaklik aangespoor is deur ekonomiese faktore (toenemende produksiekoste, mark fluktuerings, ens.); nogtans, ekologiese oorwegings ten opsigte van die bestuur van droogte en klimaatsverandering en die uitputting van die natuurlike veld moedig boere aan om hul inkomste portefeuljes te diversifiseer. Tweedens, wildboerdery is nie meer of minder medepligtig in onvolhoubare boerdery as ander vorme van boerdery nie; dit hang af van hoe dit beoefen word. In ‘n konteks van sosiaal-ekologiese verandering, kan dit bydra tot meer volhoubare grondbestuur en plaaslike ekonomiese ontwikkeling in droë omgewings (byvoorbeeld deur nuwe vorme van indiensneming) indien dit toepaslik gereguleer word as deel van ‘n groter reeks meer doeltreffende grond- en landbouhervorming projekte. Derdens, die toetreding van kleinboere tot kommersiële veeboerdery word ernstig belemmer deur ‘n gebrek aan toegang tot kritieke hulpbronne wat grond, finansiële hulp, voorligtingsdienste en produksievaardighede insluit. In hierdie konteks word wildboerdery gesien as verder as wat hulle in die Ubuntu Plaaslike Munisipaliteit kan visualiseer of nastreef.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxx, 287 leaves : illustrations (some color), maps (some color)
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectGame farms -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectBiodiversity conservation -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectPolitical ecologyen_ZA
dc.subjectLand reform -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectLand use -- South Africa -- Ubuntu municipalityen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.subjectSubsistence farming -- South Africa -- Karooen_ZA
dc.subjectSustainable agriculture -- South Africa -- Karooen_ZA
dc.titleFrom livestock to game farming : farmers understandings of land use changes, sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation in the Ubuntu Municipality, South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionDoctoralen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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