Cultural and gender dimensions in sustainable livelihoods for poor households in Gaborone : an interculteral theological study towards urban mission in the orginasation of African Instituted churches

Marima, Ernest Zvaviruka (2019-12)

Thesis (MTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This intercultural theological study in missiology explores how Organisation of African Instituted Churches (OAIC) is responding to cultural and gender dimensions of poverty, inequality, the environment in Gaborone and the implications for mobilising poor households towards sustainable livelihoods. The purpose of the study is to explore the untapped potential of the ecumenical body and identify challenges and opportunities towards social transformation. The study focuses on the twin disposable victims of the neoliberal economy growth, human and material waste on the dumpsites on the outskirts of Gaborone. Despite revered socioeconomic growth, Botswana is still one of the most unequal countries in the world with nearly half of the population poor and vulnerable. AIC members make nearly half of the population, most are women, poor, and marginalised. AICs are an embodiment of African Christianity embedded in African culture and cosmology, they are a giant emerging from the margins and are the authentic poor people’s organisations, yet they have never been at the centre of development discourse as potential key players or partners towards the marginalised despite their strategic social ‘locatedness’. The conceptual practical-theoretical study of literature and textual analysis of organisational documents and WhatsApp electronic media communication of OAIC. It is a qualitative study in the hermeneutical interpretive paradigm. The study also uses the praxis cycle to analyse the mission of OAIC. The intercultural theological framework is mission as prophetic dialogue with a focus on justice, peace, and integrity of creation. The study also reveals that poverty has a feminine and a child’s face in Botswana. Culture and immorality contribute immensely to the feminisation of poverty and poverty of children. The study reveals that the root of poverty, income inequality, gender inequality, and ecological degradation is predominantly structural injustice. Income inequality is caused by anti-poor distributive policies. Injustice is a breach to people’s well-being —shalom and a threat to national security. The study shows that OAIC is growing powerful socially, religiously and politically. They have a robust theology based on ubuntu relationality with profound potential for holistic mission towards the poor and marginalised. However, there is no evidence of their awareness of the interconnectedness of international, regional, and national discourse on poverty, inequality, gender, and ecology. Apart from the mundane institutional and palliative approaches to help the poor cope with hardships and marginality there is little evidence of substantive initiatives to deal with materiality of poverty, gender inequality, environmental injustice, and their structural sources. Yet OAIC have earned credibility and respect among the marginalised and have a robust country-wide network. Nevertheless, AICs are still incredible to development agencies, both public and None Governmental Organisation (NGO). OAIC lacks financial resources to embark on substantive social action interventions. They also lack theological and development training to appreciate and understand broader perspectives of social and theological issues. The study proposes OAIC ought to approach mission as prophetic dialogue ‘with others’ in the margins and from the margins with the marginalised. They need to engage the practices, institutions, and structures that impoverish and marginalise people. In the process employ best practices in development studies, Appreciative inquiry, logic framework, gender analysis framework, and sustainable livelihood framework as well as mobilising and activating the agency and spirituality of the poor towards self-reliance and social justice.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie interkulturele studie in Missiologie ondersoek hoe die Organisation of African Instituted Churches (hierna OAIC) reageer op die kulturele en geslagsaspekte van armoede, ongelykheid en die omgewing binne Gaberone en die implikasies daarvan vir die opheffing van arm huishoudings tot hul 'n lewensvatbare bestaan kan voer. Die doel van die navorsing is om die onontginde potensiaal van hierdie ekumeniese liggaam te verken en om die uitdagings en geleenthede vir maatskaplike verandering vas te stel. Die studie konsentreer op die heg-verbinde en oënskynlik weggooibare slagoffers van neo-liberale ekonomiese groei, naamlik die vermorsing van menslike en materiële “rommel” op die stortingsterreine in die buitewyke van Gaberone. Ten spyte van sy hoog-aangeskrewe sosio-ekonomiese groei, is Botswana steeds een van die mees ongelyke lande ter wêreld met 'n bevolking waarvan die helfte arm en kwesbaar is. OAIC-lede vorm byna die helfte van die bevolking; en van hulle is die meerderheid vroulik, arm en gemarginaliseer. Sodanige kerke beliggaam die Christenheid soos ingebed in die Afrika-kultuur en kosmologie; dié kerke is 'n reus wat uit die perifirie ontluik en is die mees outentieke “arm-mens-organisasie”, maar het nog nooit as kern van die ontwikkelings-diskoers gedien, of as potensiële rolspelers of as vennote, wat gerig is op die gemarginaliseerdes, en dit ten spyte van hulle strategiese maatskaplike sentraliteit. Hierdie verhandeling is gebaseer op 'n saamgestelde prakties-teoretiese studie van vakliteratuur, tesame met ʼn tekstuele analise van bestuursdokumente en “WhatsApp”-elektronies kommunikasie deur die OAIC. Dit volg ʼn hermeneuties-interpretatiewe paradigma vir kwalitatiewe navorsing. Dit ondersoek die missie van die OAIC met gebruikmaking van die sogenaamde “praxis cycle”. Hierdie interkulturele teologiese raamwerk beskou missie as profetiese dialoog wat konsentreer op geregtigheid, vrede en die onaantasbaarheid van die Skepping. Die navorsing toon ook dat die armstes in Botswana oorheersend vroue en kinders is. Die heersende kultuur en aanvaarding van immoraliteit dra geweldig by tot dié toedrag van sake. Die navorsing toon dat veral onderliggende strukturele onreg aan die wortel lê van armoede, ongelykheid van inkomste binne gender verhoudings en ekologiese aftakeling. Inkomste-ongelykhede word veroorsaak deur 'n “anti-arm” ekonomiese verspreidingsbeleid. Ongeregtigheid bedreig mense se welstand – hulle shalom – en dit bedreig ook nasionale veiligheid. Die navorsing toon dat OAIC maatskaplik, religieus en polities groei. Hulle handhaaf 'n robuuste teologie wat gegrond is in die ubuntu-begrip. Dit toon ʼn sterk missionale potensiaal om die armes en gemarginaliseerdes holisties te dien. Daar blyk egter geen teken te wees dat hulle bewus is van die integrale verband tussen die internasionale, streeks- en nasionale diskoerse oor armoede, ongelykheid, gender en ekologie. Benewens redelike onbelangrike institusionele en tydelike armoede-verligting wat verstotenes moet onderskraag, is daar geen tekens van substantiewe inisiatiewe om armes te help met die werklikhede van armoede, geslagsongelykheid, omgewings-ongeregtigheid en die strukturele oorsake daarvan nie. Tog geniet die OAIC geloofwaardigheid onder, en die respek van, die gemarginaliseerdes, en beskik daarby oor ʼn sterk, landswye kommunikasie-netwerk. Verder ook bly AIC’s steeds onbekend by en met ontwikkelingsinstansies, binne beide die openbare sektor en ander nie-regeringsorganisasies (NGO’s). Die OAIC het nie die finansiële middele om substantiewe maatskaplike ingrypings te kan loods nie. Hulle beskik ook nie oor die teologiese en ontwikkelings-opleiding wat hulle in staat sou stel om 'n breër perspektief op maatskaplike en teologiese vraagstukke te kan bekom nie. Die tesis beveel aan dat die OAIC hul missie as ʼn profetiese dialoog moet benader, ʼn dialoog met “die Ander” op die perifirie, en vanuit die periferie, op die gemarginaliseerdes. Dit stel voor dat hulle die gebruike, instellings en strukture wat mense verarm en marginaliseer, aanspreek. Binne hierdie raamwerk moet hulle die beste metodes wat ontwikkelings-teoretici aanbeveel, toepas: 'n ondersoek-stelsel wat mense waardeer, ʼn logiese raamwerk, gestruktureerde navorsing oor geslags-ongelykheid, en die daarstel van 'n raamwerk vir die skep van lewensonhoudende bedrywe, maar om daarby die armes self prakties en geestelik toe te rus om selfonderhoudend te kan leef binne ʼn stelsel van maatskaplike geregtigheid.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107266
This item appears in the following collections: