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Drugs, death squads and politicians : the rise of non-state armed actors in Rio de Janeiro

dc.contributor.advisorVan der Westhuizen, Janisen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorVan Dalen, Danielen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Political Studies.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-26T10:35:00Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-11T06:55:08Z
dc.date.available2019-11-26T10:35:00Z
dc.date.available2019-12-11T06:55:08Z
dc.date.issued2019-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107252
dc.descriptionThesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: The research presented serves to illuminate historical state actions that allowed for non-state armed actors to rise to prominence in Rio de Janeiro, specifically between 1964 to 2018. This is done by working through the research question: Why and How Have Non-State Armed Actors Emerged in Rio de Janeiro? Numerous geographic locations, specifically the favelas – informal housing- of Rio de Janeiro are under the control of traffickers and rogue police units. How does this happen in the world’s 9th largest economy? Previously the topic of non-state armed actors in Rio de Janeiro has been examined from sociological and anthropological approaches. This research addresses the topic from a political science focus by making use of a variety of state-focused and state societal relations theories. A single case study, exploratory design was chosen to provide an in-depth approach to the topic which had received little attention in the field of political science. Since no single theory allowed the topic to be explored in-depth, a framework was developed based on a variety of state-focused and state societal relations theories. Due to the lack of English literature available on certain topics, a combination of desktop and field research was required, which entailed spending one month in Rio de Janeiro, speaking to a variety of stakeholders. Each case study chapter explores a specific time period, highlighting key political, societal and economic events that took place. The events are examined through the lens of the created framework to explore how these actions created the context for non-state armed actors such as trafficking groups and rogue police units, or rather militias, to control segments of territory in Rio de Janeiro. While each chapter provides different time periods, there were salient consistencies. Historical police brutality, alienating favela residents, poor economic decision making by the state, and the lack of survival mechanisms for those living in poverty created the context for another actor to fill the void left by the state. By providing resources such as physical security, economic opportunities and infrastructure upgrades, traffickers won favour from favela residents. Over time rogue policing units, or known as militias, would combat trafficker control of favelas through coercive means. Once under control, there would be protection taxes and the control of service and commodities. The traffickers and the militias were able to garner support and control over geographic areas within Rio de Janeiro through either coercive means or the provision of resources. This could only be done because the state had failed to provide an environment of survivability for its most vulnerable citizens while being unable to effectively control the emergence and growth of non-state armed actors.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing wat voorgelê word dien om die historiese optrede van die nie-staatsgewapende akteurs te illustreer in Rio de Janeiro, veral tussen 1964 tot 2018, wat gelei het tot die styging van prominensie. Dit word gedoen deur die navorsingsvraag: Hoekom en Waarom het Nie-Staatsgewapende Akteurs na vore gekom in Rio de Janeiro? Verskeie geografiese liggings, spesifiek die “favelas” – informele behuising – van Rio de Janeiro word beheer deur smokkelaars en korrupte polisie-eenhede. Hoe gebeur dit in die wêreld se negende grootste ekonomie? Voorheen is die onderwerp van nie-staatsgewapende akteurs in Rio de Janeiro vanuit sosiologiese en antropologiese benaderings ondersoek. Hierdie navorsing ondersoek die onderwerp vanuit ‘n politieke wetenskaplike fokus deur gebruik te maak van ‘n verskeidenheid teorieë wat op die staat en die staats samelewingsverhoudinge gefokus is. ‘n Enkele gevallestudie met ‘n verkennende onderwerp is gekies om ‘n diepgaande benadering te gee tot die onderwerp wat tot nou toe op die gebied van politieke wetenskap min aandag ontvang het. Aangesien geen enkele teorie dit daartoe verleen om die onderwerp in diepte te verken nie, is ‘n raamwerk ontwikkel wat gebaseer is op ‘n verskeidenheid teorieë wat op die staat en die staats samelewingsverhoudings teorieë gegrond is. As gevolg van die beperkte beskikbare Engelse Literatuur oor sekere onderwerpe, maak die navorsing gebruik van ‘n kombinasie van rekenaar- en veldnavorsing. Dit het ‘n ook ‘n maand in Rio de Janeiro genoodsaak om met ‘n verskeidenheid belanghebbendes direk te praat. In elke hoofstuk wat fokus op gevallestudies word ‘n spesifieke tydperk ondersoek, waarin die belangrikste Politieke, Sosiale, en Ekonomiese gebeure wat plaasgevind het, uitgelig word. Die gebeure word ondersoek deur middel van die lens van die gevormde raamwerk om te ondersoek hoe hierdie aksies die konteks geskep het vir nie-staatsgewapende akteurs soos smokkelaars en korrupte polisie-eenhede, of liewer milisies, om sekere gebiede in Rio de Janeiro te beheer. Terwyl elke hoofstuk verskillende tydperke bevat, was daar opvallende konsekwenthede. Historiese polisie-brutaliteit, vervreemding van faela-inwoners, swak ekonomiese besluitneming deur die staat, en die gebrek aan oorlewingsmeganismes vir diegene wat in armoede leef, het die konteks geskep vir ‘n ander akteur om die leemte wat die staat gelaat het, te vul. Deur hulpbronne soos fiesieke sekuriteit, ekonomiese geleenthede en infrastrukstuuropgraderings te voorsien, het smokkelaars die guns van favela-inwoners gewen. Met verloop van tyd het korrupte polisiëringseenhede, oftewel milisies, ook mensehandel beheer deur favelas met dwang te gebruik. Sodra dit onder beheer was, sou daar Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za iv beskermingsbelasting wees, asook beheer van diens en kommoditeite. Die mensehandelaars en die milisies kon die geografiese gebiede binne Rio de Janeiro ondersteun en beheer deur middel van dwang of deur middel van die voorsiening van hulbronne. Dit kon slegs gedoen word omdat die staat gefaal het in die voorsiening van‘n omgewing van oorleefbaarheid vir sy mees kwesbare burgers en terselfdertyd was hulle nie in staat om die opkoms en groei van die gewapende akteurs effektief te beheer nie.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxiv, 151 pages : illustrationsen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.subjectViolence -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectSlums -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectCrime -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectPolitical corruption -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectSocial groups -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectDeath squads -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectNon state actors (International relations) -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectNGas (International relations) -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectNon Governmental actors (International relations) -- Brazil -- Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTD
dc.titleDrugs, death squads and politicians : the rise of non-state armed actors in Rio de Janeiroen_ZA
dc.typeMastersen_ZA
dc.description.versionMastersen_ZA


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