Research Articles (Paediatrics and Child Health)

 

Recent Submissions

  • Risk factors for infection and disease in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis : a cross-sectional study 

    Seddon, James A.; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Fielding, Katherine; Schaaf, H. S. (BioMed Central, 2013-08)
    Background: Young children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a high risk of disease progression following infection. This study aimed to determine risk factors for M. tuberculosis infection and disease in children ...

  • The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community 

    Marais, B. J.; Obihara, C. C.; Gie, R. P.; Schaaf, H. S.; Hesseling, A. C.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D.; Bateman, E.; Beyers, N. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2005-11)
    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated ...

  • Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) -- Pathogenesis 

    Kling, Sharon (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2008-04)
    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is defined as ‘the condition in which exercise induces symptoms of asthma in patients who have asthma’.1 The question is whether EIA is a distinct phenotype of asthma or whether it is ...

  • The characteristics of juvenile myasthenia gravis among South Africans 

    Heckmann, J. M.; Hansen, P.; Van Toorn, R.; Lubbe, E.; Janse Van Rensburg, E.; Wilmshurst, J. M. (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2012-06)
    Objectives. To report the characteristics of juvenile-onset (<20 years) myasthenia gravis (MG) in Africa. Subjects and methods. Six South African centres collected data which included acetylcholine receptor-antibody ...

  • Incorrectly diagnosing children as HIV-infected : experiences from a large paediatric antiretroviral therapy site in South Africa 

    Feucht, Ute Dagmar; Thomas, Ute Dagmar; Forsyth, Brian William Cameron; Kruger, Mariana (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2012-08)
    Objective. To assess the extent to which children may be falsely diagnosed as HIV-infected, using data from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) site in Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. This was a retrospective patient record ...

  • Aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in HIV-positive and HIV-negtive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients 

    Harris, Tashneem; Bardien, Soraya; Schaaf, H. Simon; Petersen, Lucretia; De Jong, Greetje; Fagan, Johannes J. (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2012-06)
    Background. Ototoxicity following aminoglycoside treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a significant problem. This study documents the incidence of ototoxicity in HIVpositive and HIV-negative ...

  • Effect of Ascaris Lumbricoides specific IgE on tuberculin skin test responses in children in a high-burdensetting : a cross-sectional community-based study 

    Van Soelen, Nelda; Mandalakas, Anna M.; Kirchner, H. L.; Walzl, Gerhard; Grewal, Harleen M. S.; Jacobsen, Marc; Hesseling, Anneke C. (BioMed Central, 2012-09)
    ABSTRACT:M.tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with enhanced T helper cell type 1 (Th1) immune responses while helminth infection is associated with T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Our aim was to investigate ...

  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in two tertiary centres in the Western Cape, South Africa 

    Weakley, Kate; Esser, Monika; Scott, Christiaan (BioMed Central, 2012-10)
    BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a disease that shows wide variations between differing populations. Since the recent international consensus on classification criteria, JIA has been widely described ...

  • Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South africa : epidemiology and control 

    Adams, Vera J.; Markus, Miles B.; Adams, Joanita F. A.; Jordaan, Esme; Curtis, Bronwyn; Dhansay, Muhammad A.; Obihara, Charlie C.; Fincham, John E. (Makerere University Medical School, 2005-06)
    Background. South Africa has endorsed a World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution calling for control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). In Cape Town, services and housing that exist in old-established suburbs should ...

  • The effect of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant on gas exchange and lung mechanics in a rabbit model of surfactant depletion 

    Van Zyl, Johann M.; Smith, Johan; Hawtrey, Arthur (Dovepress, 2013-03)
    Background: Currently, a new generation of synthetic pulmonary surfactants is being developed that may eventually replace animal-derived surfactants used in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Enlightened by ...

  • Swallowing abnormalities in HIV infected children : an important cause of morbidity 

    Nel, Etienne D.; Ellis, Alida (BioMed Central, 2012-06)
    Background: Swallowing disorders, well recognised in adults, contribute to HIV-infection morbidity. Little data however is available for HIV-infected children. The purpose of this study is to describe swallowing disorders ...

  • High prevalence of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy : a cross-sectional study 

    Innes, Steve; Cotton, Mark F.; Haubrich, Richard; Conradie, Maria M.; Van Niekerk, Margaret; Edson, Clair; Rabie, Helena; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Zollner, Ekkehard W.; Hough, Stephen; Browne, Sara H. (BioMed Central, 2012-11)
    Background: Despite changes in WHO guidelines, stavudine is still used extensively for treatment of pediatric HIV in the developing world. Lipoatrophy in sub-Saharan African children can be stigmatizing and have far-reaching ...

  • High prevalence of Tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa 

    Claassens, Mareli; Van Schalkwyk, Cari; De Haan, Leonie; Floyd, Sian; Dunbar, Rory; Van Helden, Paul; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen; Borgdorff, Martien; Enarson, Donald; Beyers, Nulda (PLoS ONE, 2013-04)
    Background: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB) for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, ...

  • Bacterial disease and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in HIV-Infected, hospitalized children: A retrospective cohort study 

    Jaspan, Heather B.; Huang, Lyen C.; Cotton, Mark F.; Whitelaw, Andrew; Myer, Landon (PLOS, 2008-09-24)
    Background: Serious bacterial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. The spectrum of disease is wide, and responsible organisms vary according to setting. The use of antibiotic ...

  • Development and implementation of a national programme for the management of severe and very severe pneumonia in children in Malawi 

    Enarson, Penelope Marjorie; Gie, Robert; Enarson, Donald A.; Mwansambo, Charles (Public Library of Science -- PLOS, 2009-11)
    The reduction of child mortality by two-thirds from its 1990 level by 2015—the fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal—is a major challenge. Pneumonia accounts for much (≥20%) of this mortality in poor countries, ...

  • Malnutrition in paediatric oncology patients 

    Schoeman, Judith; Dannhauser, Andre; Kruger, Mariana (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-08)
    Children more commonly present with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) at diagnosis of cancer in developing countries than in developed countries, depending on the type of cancer and extent of the disease. PEM at cancer ...

  • Leukaemia in childhood 

    Kruger, Mariana (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-06)
    Leukaemia means white blood. It is a disease of the white blood cells and was first described by Virchow in 1845. Leukaemia can present as an acute disease, occurring more often in the younger age groups, or as a chronic ...

  • Epidemiology of childhood cancer and the SACCSG tumour registry 

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-07)
    Childhood cancer is relatively rare, comprising less than 1% of cases of malignant disease. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in Western countries, while in Africa it is not even ranked among ...

  • Communication in the diagnosis of childhood cancer 

    Uys, Ronelle (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-07)
    Delivering bad news is a continuous challenge for medical staff working in paediatric oncology and haematology units and in other areas, such as ICUs. Conveying the news in a thoughtful, caring and hopeful way shows ...

  • Cancer in children -- Diagnosis -- South Africa 

    Kruger, Mariana (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-07)
    Childhood cancer is rare and comprises only 1% of all cancers. It usually develops from non-ectodermal embryonal tissue. Major improvement in cancer treatment and supportive care in the last 50 years has changed a fatal ...

  • Bleeding in children with cancer 

    Dippenaar, Anel (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010-07)
    Before the success story of leukaemia treatment started in the 1950s, many patients succumbed to the disease because of severe haemorrhage. A bleeding tendency is one of the hallmarks of haematological malignancies such ...

  • Adherence to isoniazid preventive chemotherapy: a prospective community based study 

    Marais, B. J.; Van Zyl, S.; Schaaf, H. S.; Van Aardt, M. C.; Gie, R. P.; Beyers, N. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2006-09)
    Background: Current international guidelines recommend 6–9 months of isoniazid (INH) preventive chemotherapy to prevent the development of active tuberculosis in children exposed to a susceptible strain of M tuberculosis. ...

  • An infant who survived abortion and neonatal intensive care 

    Clarke, P.; Smith, J.; Kelly, T.; Robinson, M. J. (Informa Healthcare, 2005-01)
    Termination of pregnancy is a common procedure worldwide. In the UK, termination is legal until the 24th week of pregnancy, and allowed throughout gestation in certain circumstances. Some infants aborted at the margins of ...

  • Confidentiality in medicine 

    Kling, Sharon (Allergy Society of South Africa, 2010-11)
    Confidentiality in medicine ensures respect for the patient's privacy and improves health care by enabling the patient to trust the health professional with very personal information. Confidentiality may be breached if ...

  • Ensuring the involvement of children in the evaluation of new tuberculosis treatment regimens 

    Burman, William J.; Cotton, Mark F.; Gibb, Diana M.; Walker, A. Sarah; Vernon, Andrew A.; Donald, Peter R. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2008-08)
    Global tuberculosis control is threatened by dramatic increases in HIV-related tuberculosis and by the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. Highly lethal outbreaks of extensively drugresistant tuberculosis among ...

  • Changes in incidence and prognosis of malignancies in children with HIV 

    Stefan, Daniela C.; Stones, David K.; Newton, Rob (BioMed Central, 2012-04)
    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in patient demographics as well as in the relative incidence and outcome of childhood cancers, associated with the HIV infection.

  • False-positive HIV DNA PCR testing of infants : implications in a changing epidemic 

    Feucht, Ute; Forsyth, Brian; Kruger, Mariana (Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2012-03)
    Aim. To examine false-positive HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results in children, and the potential implications for the paediatric HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. A review was done of records ...

  • Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa : a prospective cohort study 

    Jaspan, Heather B.; Myer, Landon; Madhi, Shabir A.; Violari, Avy; Gibb, Diana M.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Dobbels, Els; Cotton, Mark F. (BioMed Central, 2011-11)
    ABSTRACT: Background: As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, ...

  • Supraventricular tachycardia in children 

    Van der Merwe, D. M.; Van der Merwe, P. L. (Clinics Cardiv Publishing, 2004-04)
    The mechanisms causing different supraventricular tachycardias can be identified with the aid of the 12-lead ECG using Tipple’s approach. The main aims of this retrospective study were to use the 12-lead ECG to determine ...

  • Mitral valve prolapse : a study of 45 children 

    Van der Ham, D. P.; De Vries, J. K.; Van der Merwe, P- L. (Clinics Cardiv Publishing, 2003-08)
    The knowledge pertaining to mitral valve prolapse is mainly based on studies in adults. In this study, the clinical profile as described in adults was compared with that found in children up to the age of 13 years. Fortyfive ...

View more