’n Behoefte aan die integrering van tegnologie in die Afrikaans Huistaal-klaskamer om die ontwikkeling van 21ste-eeuse vaardighede te ondersteun : ’n gevallestudie
CITATION: Taylor, R. & Van Der Merwe, M. 2019. ’n Behoefte aan die integrering van tegnologie in die Afrikaans Huistaal-klaskamer om die ontwikkeling van 21ste-eeuse vaardighede te ondersteun : ’n gevallestudie. LitNet Akademies, 16(1):295-340.
The original publication is available at https://www.litnet.co.za
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The global and local evolution of technology and the internet has added a new dimension to teaching and learning in the school classroom. This is an important issue because the 21st-century school learner is a digital native that brings mobile technology into the language class. This means that the teacher is confronted daily with the presence of this technology. The purpose of the article is to answer the following research question: Why should the teacher integrate technology into the Afrikaans Home Language classroom? Special attention is given to: 21st-century learner needs; the reasons why technology should be integrated; and how documents relating to classroom teaching can be used to find an angle for integration of technology. This article critically examines and evaluates the reasons why we want to integrate technology into the teaching of Afrikaans Home Language. The finding is that the Afrikaans Home Language teacher should prepare learners for the 21st century and therefore technology integration should take place in the classroom. Jan (2017:53) emphasises the importance of the teacher‘s having to realise that the skill to acquire, assimilate and apply is a key skill of the 21st century. The literacies that are important in the 21st century are briefly, according to Partnership for 21st century learning (P21 2007:2): learning and innovation skills (creativity, innovation, critical thinking, problem-solving; communication and cooperation); information, media and technological skills (information and media literacy); ICT (information, communication and technology); literacy and life and career skills (flexibility, adaptability, initiative, self-employment, social and cross-cultural skills, productivity, accountability, leadership and responsibility). 21st-century technology has changed the context of the school classroom and urges teachers to look at it with new eyes. Anderson (2002:34) supports the view and states that teaching with technology has changed the teaching and learning environment, the learner's needs and the role of the teacher in the 21st century. The reality is that language teachers are equipped with technology and use it, but do not always know how to do it within the framework of the Afrikaans Home Language curriculum. The integration of technology is a conscious action within the 21st-century classroom, which actively involves the learner and teacher and forces both to innovate on the possible applications so that meaning can be gained through the experience. Tseng (2016:44) supports the statement with his argument that a 21st-century classroom combines the physical and the digital infrastructure, thus traditional learning (face to face) with online learning. It brings the approach of mixed or blended learning to the classroom. These innovative applications of technology also involve the field of constructivism. Constructivism is a learning theory based on the idea that people are "active" acquaintances and learning is determined by the complex combination of the learner's existing knowledge (prior knowledge), the social context and the situation, problem or activity to be solved (Tam 2000:51). Knowledge acquisition is constructive because the 21st-century learner uses his own existing knowledge and through interaction in the peer group, their combined knowledge is used to solve problems (Saavedra and Opfer 2012:8). The social interaction between learners also creates the opportunity to test and refine the knowledge (Ah-Nam and Osman 2017:205). The methodology used is an interpretivist case study with a qualitative and quantitative approach where document analysis is used as an instrument. The occurrence frequency of key terms is determined and shown on a graph. The key terms used are terms related to technology, the needs of the 21st-century learner (P21 Framework for 21st century learning 2007) and Afrikaans Home Language. The prevalence of key terms is investigated within the Afrikaans Home Language curriculum and the White Paper on e-Education in South Africa. These documents are chosen because they direct the classroom curriculum and the teacher uses them when a teaching and learning program is compiled. Based on the analysis of the different documents, it is insightful that the prevalence of key literacy is related to Afrikaans Home Language and technology. This connection indicates the point of view of using technology in the Afrikaans Home Language class. The different literacy skills are therefore an important point of departure for the use of technology in the classroom, because instead of focusing only on the traditional literacies of reading, writing and speaking, language teachers may also need to focus on the literacy needs specific to the 21st century. The case study as a strategy for investigation is also relevant because the researcher involves the source (the Curriculum and Assessment Policy of Afrikaans Home Language, or CAPS) that directs teaching within the Afrikaans Home Language classroom. This insight to involve the document or source of teaching enabled the researcher to realise that documents are an important theoretical aspect related to the context of the study (Bowen 2009:28). Therefore it was decided to use document analysis as a data collection method for the case study and to include other documents relating to the case. From the document analysis it was concluded that technology can be used within the context of the language class to develop the different types of literacy required for 21st-century learners. The starting point for the development of the 21st-century learner is ICT literacy. The article links the terms of language teaching and technology integration and reveals an important gap in the way in which the integration of technology takes place within the context of the Afrikaans Home Language class. The answer to the research question: "Why should the Afrikaans Home Language teacher integrate technology?" is that technology should be integrated because it can develop 21st-century literacy skills. These skills can be developed through the integration of technology with the content of the CAPS. The results of the research can contribute to the knowledge base of Afrikaans Home Language, as technology can be used to sharpen learners‘ 21st-century literacy skills. In the light of the results of this study, the following recommendations may make a contribution to the integration of technology into the Afrikaans Home Language classroom: Firstly, it can be used as a cognitive tool to make learners literate. Secondly, productivity can be improved by using applications that allow editing, animation and information retrieval. Thirdly, it can be used as a means of communication through which learners can share ideas (discussions), work together online (collaborative learning), do group work (co-operative learning and use other communication applications). Fourthly, it can be used to do research online (information literacy) and to save information in online clouds. Fifthly, it can be used for real-world imitation, with which the learner develops visual literacy skills for the 21st century. It can also be used for game-based learning to motivate learners to learn by playing games. Tasks can be done on computer and submitted online and it is appropriate for the communicative and task-based approaches. Within the context of Afrikaans Home Language the teacher should begin with literacy (as spelled out by the CAPS) and then follow with replanning and the establishment of a new plan for technology integration with a view to developing 21st-century skills. The implication for Afrikaans Home Language is that a replanning of teaching and learning should be done to determine how the needs of the 21st-century school learner can also be addressed within the language class. Within the context of Afrikaans Home Language such a plan can offer the following possibilities: provide access to the latest resources (information skills); create new ways to collect and capture data (computer literacy); create collaboration between learners, teachers and experts globally (critical thinking and communication skills); provide an opportunity to expand, publish and demonstrate understanding through the use of multimedia (media and computer literacy); create opportunities for authentic learning and teaching, as well as appropriate assessment possibilities (communication and information skills). We can therefore deduce that technology integration involves a systematic process of planning, design, evaluation and implementation. The Afrikaans Home Language teacher must take into account the following aspects: the construction of knowledge; the accessibility of technology; the blending of the traditional and online learning environments; learner-centeredness; the appropriate tools; the different ways technology can be use in the classroom context. The use of technology will also affect Afrikaans Home Language teachers' choices of teaching strategies, because the context of the classroom has changed. The 21st-century learners‘ needs also influence the classroom context and the Afrikaans Home Language teacher should integrate technology to develop learners' literacy skills.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die wêreldwye en plaaslike ontwikkeling van tegnologie en die internet het ’n nuwe dimensie tot onderrig en leer in die skoolklaskamer gevoeg. Dit is ’n belangrike kwessie, want die 21ste-eeuse skoolleerder is ’n digitale boorling wat mobiele tegnologie in die taalklas inbring. Dit impliseer dat die onderwyser daagliks met die teenwoordigheid van dié tegnologie gekonfronteer word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek en evalueer krities die redes waarom ons tegnologie in die onderrig van Afrikaans Huistaal wil integreer. Die bevinding is dat die Afrikaans Huistaal-onderwyser leerders vir die 21ste eeu gereed behoort te maak en daarom behoort tegnologie-integrasie in die klaskamer plaas te vind. Die metodologie wat gebruik is, is ’n gevallestudie met ’n kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe benadering waar dokumentontleding as ’n instrument gebruik is. Die voorkomsfrekwensie van sleutelterme is bepaal en op ’n grafiek aangedui. Die sleutelterme wat gebruik is, is terme wat verband hou met tegnologie, die behoeftes van die 21ste-eeuse leerder (P21 Framework for 21st century learning 2007) en Afrikaans Huistaal. Die voorkomsfrekwensie van sleutelterme word binne die Afrikaans Huistaal-kurrikulum en die Witskrif oor e-onderwys in Suid-Afrika ondersoek. Hierdie dokumente is gekies omdat dit die kurrikulum in die klaskamer rig en die onderwyser dit gebruik wanneer ’n onderrig-en-leer-program saamgestel word. Gebaseer op die ontleding van die verskillende dokumente is dit insiggewend dat die voorkomsfrekwensie van die sleutelterm geletterdheid verbandhoudend met Afrikaans Huistaal en tegnologie is. Dié verband dui die invalshoek vir die gebruik van tegnologie in die Afrikaans Huistaal-klas aan. Die artikel verbind die terme taalonderrig en tegnologie-integrasie en lig ’n belangrike leemte uit oor die wyse waarop die integrasie van tegnologie binne die konteks van die Afrikaans Huistaal-klas plaasvind. Die implikasie vir Afrikaans Huistaal is dat ’n herbeplanning van onderrigplanne gedoen behoort te word om te bepaal hoe die behoeftes van die 21ste-eeuse skoolleerder ook binne die taalklas aangespreek kan word.