The internal consistency, predictive validity and norms of the paper and pencil games for a group of isiXhosa-speaking learners
In this study the internal consistency and predictive validity of the Paper and Pencil Games (PPG) Level 3 for a group of isiXhosa-speaking learners in Grade 4 were investigated. The internal consistency for the verbal, non-verbal and total scales was established by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The internal consistency of the total and non-verbal scales was high and the internal consistency of the verbal scale notably lower. The predictive validity of the PPG was investigated by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients between the verbal, non-verbal and total scores of the PPG and achievement in the different school subjects and the overall achievement. The total scale of the PPG was the best predictor of achievement in English, Mathematics, Science, Geography, History and Health Science as well as overall achievement. The verbal scale was the best predictor of achievement in Afrikaans and the non-verbal scale of achievement in isiXhosa. Local norms in the form of stanines were also calculated for the group of isiXhosa-speaking learners. © Psychological Society of South Africa. All rights reserved.