Inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus as facilitators of hypercoagulation and abnormal clot formation

Randeria, Shehan N. ; Thomson, Greig J. A. ; Nell, Theo A. ; Roberts, Timothy ; Pretorius, Etheresia (2019-06-04)

CITATION: Randeria, S. N., et al. 2019. Inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus as facilitators of hypercoagulation and abnormal clot formation. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 18:72, doi:10.1186/s12933-019-0870-9.

The original publication is available at https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com

Article

Background: The global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), together with the presence of cardiovascular risk in this population, is reaching pandemic levels. A prominent feature of T2DM is chronic and systemic inflammation, with the accompanying presence of circulating and dysregulated inflammatory biomarkers; which in turn is associated with abnormal clot formation. Methods: Here, we investigate the correlation between abnormal blood clotting, using thromboelastography (TEG), clot ultrastructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the presence of a dysregulated inflammatory cytokine profile, by examining various circulating biomarkers. Results: Our results show that many biomarkers, across TEG, cytokine and lipid groups, were greatly dysregulated in the T2DM sample. Furthermore, our T2DM sample’s coagulation profiles were significantly more hypercoagulable when compared to our heathy sample, and ultrastructural analysis confirmed a matted and denser clot structure in the T2DM sample. Conclusions: We suggest that dysregulated circulating molecules may in part be responsible for a hypercoagulable state and vascular dysfunction in the T2DM sample. We propose further that a personalized approach could be of great value when planning treatment and tracking the patient health status after embarking on a treatment regimes, and that looking to novel inflammatory and vascular biomarkers might be crucial.

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