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The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility

dc.contributor.authorSchurz, Haikoen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSalie, Muneeben_ZA
dc.contributor.authorTromp, Gerarden_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHoal, Eileen G.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKinnear, Craig J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMoller, Marloen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-15T13:34:05Z
dc.date.available2019-01-15T13:34:05Z
dc.date.issued2019-01-08
dc.identifier.citationSchurz, H., et al. 2019. The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility. Human Genomics, 13:2, doi:10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z
dc.identifier.issn1479-7364 (online)
dc.identifier.issn1473-9542 (print)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105315
dc.descriptionCITATION: Schurz, H., et al. 2019. The X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibility. Human Genomics, 13:2, doi:10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at https://humgenomics.biomedcentral.com
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: The X chromosome and X-linked variants have largely been ignored in genome-wide and candidate association studies of infectious diseases due to the complexity of statistical analysis of the X chromosome. This exclusion is significant, since the X chromosome contains a high density of immune-related genes and regulatory elements that are extensively involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Many diseases present with a clear sex bias, and apart from the influence of sex hormones and socioeconomic and behavioural factors, the X chromosome, X-linked genes and X chromosome inactivation mechanisms contribute to this difference. Females are functional mosaics for X-linked genes due to X chromosome inactivation and this, combined with other X chromosome inactivation mechanisms such as genes that escape silencing and skewed inactivation, could contribute to an immunological advantage for females in many infections. In this review, we discuss the involvement of the X chromosome and X inactivation in immunity and address its role in sexual dimorphism of infectious diseases using tuberculosis susceptibility as an example, in which male sex bias is clear, yet not fully explored.
dc.description.urihttps://humgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40246-018-0185-z
dc.format.extent12 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherBMC (part of Springer Nature)en_ZA
dc.subjectTuberculosisen_ZA
dc.subjectSexismen_ZA
dc.subjectX chromosomeen_ZA
dc.subjectGeneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectDisease susceptibilityen_ZA
dc.titleThe X chromosome and sex-specific effects in infectious disease susceptibilityen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.date.updated2019-01-15T11:50:16Z
dc.description.versionPublisher's version
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA


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