Migration and brain drain in secondary cities: A case study of the Madibeng Municipality

Pekane, Zacharia Tshepo (2018-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Secondary cities and rural municipalities lose their skilled labour force (those with three or more years of tertiary qualification) to more urbanised municipalities throughout the world. Madibeng municipality, a secondary city municipality located in the North West province, and which functionally forms part of the satellite urban system of the Gauteng polycentric city region that straddles provincial boundaries, is a typical example of such a municipality. Using Census 2011 data, the study seeks to understand the significance of the economic benefits that the Madibeng municipality holds for out-migrants, the pulling factor that the municipality has on the in-migrants, and the impact of migration on the locals. To be able to identify possible benefits of marginal productivity and increasing wage levels accrue to the municipality as a traditional migrant sending economy or whether there is a window of opportunity to identify possible areas for improvement to reach that eventuality. The study also seeks to understand the level of brain drain in the municipality and evaluate the adequacy of in-migrants to reverse the brain drain as well as identify the categories of workers that are adversely affected by this form of migration. For the purpose of the study, the dataset for analysis excludes children born after the 2001 population census. People who did not usually reside in the household when they were enumerated on census night were excluded and those who moved within the municipality were still regarded as locals. The study uses proportions of variables of interest to standardise comparison of different categories (i.e. locals, in-migrants and out-migrants). The variables are then cross-tabulated according to different characteristics of the population to allow interpretation of these characteristics. For selected variables, a test is performed to assess if the differences in the proportions are significant between the three categories. Comparison is made between the three categories (locals, in-migrants and out-migrants) to check their characteristics according to employment status, educational attainment (as a proxy to skills level), income levels, age structure and access to goods/services. The study shows that the in-migrants are highly skilled compared to local residents, although the outmigrants are proportionally higher educated than the in-migrants. The high volume of in-migrants significantly mitigates the loss of skilled workers. In-migrants play a role in increasing skills differentials in the Madibeng municipality. Due to the low-skilled migrants representing the highest proportion, their impact lowers average incomes in the municipality, thus contributing to inequality. Migrants were found to be resilient with lower unemployment rates compared to the locals. The outmigrants moved to destinations that provide better services such as sanitation, water and electricity when compared to their place of origin. The municipality should pursue policies that deliberately target a higher proportion of skilled migrants. To be able to retain some of these skilled migrants, the municipality should pursue policies that are geared towards urbanisation at high densities to be able to reduce costs that are associated with the provision of infrastructure when it is provided over a long distance.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sekondêre stede en landelike munisipaliteite verloor regoor die wêreld geskoolde arbeid (werkers met drie jaar of meer tersiêre onderrig) aan stedelike munisipaliteite. Die Madibeng-munisipaliteit, ’n sekondêre stadsmunisipaliteit wat geleë is in die Noordwes provinsie maar wat funksioneel deel is van die polisentriese Gauteng stadsgebied, is ‘n tipiese voorbeeld van so ‘n munisipaliteit. Die studie maak gebruik van Sensus 2011 resultate om die belangrikheid van Madibeng se ekonomiese situasie vir uit-migrante, sowel as trekkragte vir in-migrante, en die impak van migrasie op die plaaslike bevolking te verstaan. Die studie ondersoek die mate waartoe die munisipaliteit, as ‘n tradisionele netto-uitmigrasie area, voordeel trek uit marginale produktiwiteit en stygende loonvlakke, en hoe enige voordele bewerkstellig kan word. Die studie poog, laastens, om te bepaal tot watter mate inmigrasie kompenseer vir uitmigrasie. Die die kategorieë van werkers wat negatief geraak word deur migrasie word geidentifiseer. Vir die doeleindes van die studie word kinders wat gebore is na die 2001 bevolkingsensus sowel as individue wat nie gewoonlik in die huishouding woon nie uitgesluit. Intra-munisipale migrante word steeds beskou as deel van die plaaslike bevolking. Die studie maak gebruik van proporsies in veranderlikes van belang ten einde vergelykings tussen verskillende kategorieë (i.e. plaaslikes, inmigrasie, uitmigrasie) te standaardiseer. Die eienskappe van veranderlikes is dan gekruistabuleer volgens verskillende bevolkingseienskappe ten einde interpretasie te fasiliteer. ’n Toets is laastens uitgevoer om die statistiese betekenisvolheid van verskille tussen proporsies in die drie kategorieë te toets. Die studie vergelyk drie kategorieë (plaaslikes, inmigrante en uitmigrante) in terme van die volgende karaktereinskappe: indiensneming, onderwys (as ‘n aanduiding van vaardigheid), inkomste, ouderdomstruktuur en toegang tot goedere en dienste. Die studie toon dat, hoewel die inmigrante meer geskool is as nie-migrante, uitmigrante meer geskool is as inmigrante. Die hoë volume van inmigrasie lewer egter ’n betekenisvolle bydrae daartoe om die verlies aan geskoolde werkers te mitigeer. Inmigrante dra definitief by tot die verhoging van die vaardigheidsdifferensiaal in die Madibeng munisipaliteit deurdat die hoë proporsie laag geskoolde inmigrante gemiddelde lone in die munisipaliteit afstoot wat ongelykheid verhoog. Die studie bevind dat, vergeleke met plaaslike inwoners, inmigrante ‘n laer werkloosheidsyfer gehad het. Uitmigrante het oorwegend migreer na bestemmings met beter dienslewering (water, riolering en elektrisiteit). Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za vi Die munisipaliteit behoort, ten slotte, beleid te implementeer wat ten doel het om meer hooggeskoolde arbeid te trek en te behou. Een benadering is om hoë digtheid verstedeliking voor te staan ten einde die marginale koste van infrastruktuur te verminder waar dit oor lang afstande gelewer word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103939
This item appears in the following collections: