Molecular phylogeny of the spiny lobster genus Palinurus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) with hypotheses on speciation in the NE Atlantic/Mediterranean and SW Indian Ocean
Sequence data derived from the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA and COI genes were used to determine the phylogenetic relationships among six Palinurus spiny lobster species. Three species (P. charlestoni, P. elephas, and P. mauritanicus) occur in the northeastern Atlantic/Mediterranean, and the others (P. barbarae, P. delagoae and P. gilchristi) inhabit the southwestern Indian Ocean. Parsimony and model based phylogenetics strongly supported the monophyly of the genus. A combined parsimony analysis based on 1001 bp and 274 parsimony informative characters recovered the most resolved phylogeny with >70% bootstrap support for associations among species. The Atlantic P. charlestoni consistently clusters nested within the Indian Ocean clade, and the mtDNA sequence divergence between the two most distant species is 8.24%. If the northward collision of Africa with Eurasia in the Miocene caused the final physical separation between the Atlantic and Indian Ocean taxa, then the Palinurus mtDNA (COI and 16S combined) evolved no faster than 0.18% (lower bound) to 0.36% (upper bound) per lineage per million years. The six extant species occur in the pathways of the North Atlantic and South Indian Ocean gyres, and hypotheses on their radiation are developed relative to the strengthening of boundary currents in the Miocene and life history traits congruent with survival in strong ocean currents. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.