Phylogenetics and biogeography of Mascarene angraecoid orchids (Vandeae, Orchidaceae)
The large angraecoid orchid clade (subtribe Angraecinae sensu lato) has undergone extensive radiation in the western Indian Ocean, which includes Africa, Madagascar, and a number of Indian Ocean islands, such as the Mascarene Archipelago. To investigate systematics and biogeography of these Mascarene orchids, phylogenetic relationships were inferred from four plastid DNA regions, trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, matK gene, and rps16 intron. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses provided identical sets of relationships within the subtribe; the large genus Angraecum as currently circumscribed does not form an exclusive clade. Bonniera, an endemic genus to Reunion, is shown to be embedded in part of Angraecum. Evidence from our research supports the main origin of Mascarene Angraecinae from Madagascar, and although there were many independent colonizations, only a few of the lineages radiated within the Mascarene Archipelago. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.