Production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, Blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) with bacteriocinogenic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus
Lactobacillus plantarum 423, producer of bacteriocin 423, Lactobacillus curvatus DF38, producer of curvacin DF38, and a bacteriocin-negative mutant of L. plantarum 423 (423m) were evaluated as starter cultures in the production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, Blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis). Growth of L. plantarum 423 and L. curvatus DF38 was best supported in Blesbok salami, as revealed by the highest growth rate during sweating, cold smoking and maturation, and final cell numbers after 70 days (1 × 108 and 5 × 107 cfu/g, respectively). Growth of Listeria innocua was the best suppressed in Blesbok salami fermented with L. plantarum 423 and L. curvatus DF38. Growth of L. innocua in horse salami was best suppressed when fermented with L. curvatus DF38. The final pH of salami fermented with L. plantarum 423 and L. plantarum 423m was slightly lower (4.4) compared to the pH of salami produced with L. curvatus DF38 (pH 4.7). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were recorded by a trained sensory taste panel amongst the three starter cultures regarding colour and venison like aroma. Horse, Blesbok and Springbok salami were rated significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in salami flavour than mutton salami, which was rated the lowest for this attribute. Blesbok salami was rated the highest for sour meat aroma, while beef salami was rated the lowest. Springbok salami was rated the highest in terms of oily mouth feel. Beef salami had the most compact structure and horse salami the softest structure of all meat types fermented. In general, salami produced with L. plantarum 423 yielded the best sour meat aroma, colour, texture, venison like flavour, sour meat flavour and oily mouthfeel and is considered superior to the L. plantarum mutant (strain 423m) and L. curvatus DF38. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.