Human capital retention: Developing and validating a structural model of selected antecedents of intention to quit

Samuel, Olorunjuwon Michael (2017-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Contemporary organisations are more interested in understanding employees’ cognitive intention to quit the organisation rather than dealing with the costly and disruptive consequences of actual turnover. This understanding will, to a large extent, assist organisational managers in developing strategies that are capable of effectively reducing the rate of employee turnover to a manageable proportion. In order to achieve a meaningful understanding of employees’ cognitive intention to quit, it is imperative for organisational managers to develop a knowledge of the complex relationship that exists between antecedents of intention to quit and an individual employee’s turnover intention. Based on extant literature, this study investigated the relationship between employees’ turnover intention and selected psychological constructs, i.e. transformational leadership, psychological empowerment, perceived organisational support (POS), organisational justice, organisational trust, psychological contract violation and affective organisational commitment. In order to establish these relationships, an empirical study was conducted among various levels of employees in selected public, private and parastatal organisations located in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Gauteng provinces of South Africa. A theoretical model depicting the relationships among the investigated constructs was developed and a number of hypotheses were formulated based on the theoretical model of the study. The study employed a survey research design using a quantitative research strategy. Data were collected from a non-probability and conveniently sampled 232 employees across the organisations that were surveyed. A standardised measurement instrument consisting of all the variables under investigation was used and administered personally and online. The postulated relationships were empirically tested using various statistical methods. Reliability analyses were conducted on all the measurement scales and adequate reliability was established. The content and structure of the measured constructs were investigated by means of exploratory factor analysis. A Partial Least Square (PLS) based Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the relationships between the constructs. On the basis of the multiple regression results, the two most important predictors of intention to quit are organisational justice and psychological contract violation. Organisations that want to minimise employee turnover should therefore start with practical interventions promoting organisational justice and decreasing psychological contract violation. While the results of this study have mostly confirmed findings of previous studies, it also established some new and interesting directions in the relationships between certain constructs (e.g., trust and perceived organisational support) and intention to quit. The structural model indicates both less complex and more complex paths consisting of the following possible sequences to predict employee turnover: Transformational leadership through organisational justice, through POS, through affective organisational commitment to impact intention to quit; Transformational leadership through organisational justice, through trust, through psychological contract violation to impact intention to quit; and transformational leadership through psychological empowerment through trust, through psychological contract violation to impact intention to quit. The findings of the present study represent an incremental and meaningful contribution to existing literature on employee retention and intention to quit by providing insights into the nature of the relationships amongst these constructs. The study also provides practical implications that could assist management in adopting strategies that enhances retention of its workforce. The limitations and recommendations of the study provide a useful guide for future research consideration.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Kontemporêre organisasies stel toenemend belang in die oorsaak van die kognitiewe voorneme van werknemers om die organisasie te verlaat, eerder as die duur en ontwrigtende gevolge van werknemersomset. Sodanige begrip sal waarskynlik bestuurders in organisasies help in die ontwikkeling van strategieë om werknemersomset na meer hanteerbare vlakke te laat daal. Ten einde hierdie begrip te ontwikkel is dit noodsaaklik vir bestuurders om die komplekse verband tussen werknemers se voorneme om te bedank en die uiteindelike besluit van individuele werknemers om werklik te bedank, beter te verstaan. Hierdie studie ondersoek die verband tussen die voorneme van werknemers om te bedank en sielkundige konstrukte soos transformasionele leierskap, sielkundige bemagtiging, waargenome organisatoriese ondersteuning, organisatoriese geregtigheid, organisatoriese vertroue, sielkundige kontrakskending en affektiewe organisasiebetrokkenheid. Ten einde hierdie verwantskappe te ontleed, is 'n empiriese studie onder werknemers in geselekteerde openbare, private en semi-staatsorganisasies in die Wes-Kaap, Oos-Kaap en Gauteng provinsies van Suid-Afrika gedoen. ‘n Teoretiese model wat die verwantskappe tussen die konstrukte uitbeeld, is ontwikkel en 'n aantal hipoteses is op grond van die teoretiese model geformuleer. Die studie berus op 'n kwantitatiewe opname en maak gebruik van nie-waarskynlikheid, gerieflikheidsteekproefneming. Daar was 232 respondente, wat beide persoonlik en aanlyn genader en geadministreer is. ‘n Gestandaardiseerde meetinstrument wat al die veranderlikes behels wat ondersoek is, is gebruik om die data in te samel. Die verwantskap tussen konstrukte is getoets met behulp van verskeie statistiese metodes. Betroubaarheidsontledings is uitgevoer op alle metingskale en voldoende betroubaarheidsvlakke is gevind. Die inhoud en struktuur van die konstrukte is deur middel van verkennende faktorontleding ondersoek. ‘n “Partial Least Squares” (PLS) metode gebaseer op strukturele vergelykingsmodellering is gebruik om die gepostuleerde verwantskappe te toets. Die twee belangrikste voorspellers van die voorneme om te bedank is bepaal met behulp van meervoudige regressie-analise. Die twee veranderlikes is organisatoriese geregtigheid en sielkundige kontrakskending. Organisasies wat werknemersomset aan bande wil lê, moet derhalwe begin met intervensies wat fokus op die bevordering van organisatoriese geregtigheid en die vermindering van sielkundige kontrakskending. Terwyl die resultate van die studie grootliks vorige bevindings bevestig, het dit ook 'n paar nuwe en interessante rigtings in die verwantskappe tussen sekere konstrukte (bv. organisatoriese vertroue en waargenome organisatoriese ondersteuning) en voorneme om te bedank geïdentifiseer. Die strukturele model dui beide minder en meer komplekse paaie aan wat bestaan uit die volgende moontlike reekse om werknemersomset te voorspel: Transformasionele leierskap deur organisatoriese geregtigheid, deur waargenome organisatoriese ondersteuning, deur affektiewe organisatoriese betrokkenheid om die voorneme om te bedank, te beïnvloed; Transformasionele leierskap deur organisatoriese geregtigheid, deur vertroue en deur sielkundige kontrakskending om die voorneme om te bedank, te beïnvloed; asook transformasionele leierskap deur middel van sielkundige bemagtiging, deur vertroue, deur sielkundige kontrakskending om die voorneme om te bedank, te beïnvloed. Die bevindinge van die studie bied ‘n betekenisvolle bydrae tot bestaande literatuur oor werknemer retensie deur middel van die verskaffing van insigte oor die komplekse wisselwerking tussen die voorspellers van werknemersomset. Die studie bied ook praktiese implikasies wat bestuur in organisasies kan help met die ontwikkeling van strategieë wat die behoud van die werkmag kan verbeter. Die beperkings en aanbevelings van die studie bied ook nuttige riglyne vir toekomstige navorsing in die veld.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102810
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