The effectiveness of child-centered play therapy on learners with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Wall, Juanté (2017-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych)--Stellenbosch University, 2017

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT : Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric conditions. The criticism of and often resistance to psychopharmacological and behavioural treatment methods, the two most commonly used interventions for children identified as having ADHD, expose the importance of developing interventions that not only address children’s behavioural difficulties, but also their emotional, social, and developmental needs (Goodman & Linn, 2003; Seltzer & Krauss, 2001). Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) is an approach to play therapy that allows for nondirective therapeutic sessions between the child and therapist. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of CCPT as an intervention that reduces teacher-identified and parent-identified behavioural and emotional difficulties among children diagnosed with ADHD (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation). A quantitative methodology was followed and a quasiexperimental research design, specifically a time series design, was used to investigate changes in children’s behaviours, emotions and academic performance across baseline and intervention conditions. For this study, the target population included children formally diagnosed with ADHD, attending a school for children with physical and learning difficulties in the Western Cape. A group of children aged between 8 and 10 years was selected. The Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales (VADRS) for children aged 6 to 12 years was used to collect data and quantitative data analysis was performed. After the analyses of teacher responses over eight time points, statistically significant differences between data at various time points were found in the following categories: combined inattention and hyperactivity, defiance, and low mood and anxiety (P<0.01); academic performance (P<0.05); and a trend for inattention (significant at 10%, p=0.09). No significant differences were found between time points for the hyperactivity/impulsivity category. After the analyses of parent responses over four time points, statistically significant differences between data at various time points were found in all categories (P<0.01). After the analyses of combined teacher parent responses over four time points, statistically significant differences between data at various time points were found in all categories (P<0.01). Although the results of this study are promising, the nature of this study necessitates the need to conduct further CCPT-based interventions with individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Aandagtekort/Hiperaktiwiteitsversteuring (ADHD) is een van die mees algemene psigiatriese versteurings by kinders. Algemene kritiek van en selfs weerstand teen psigofarmakologiese - en gedragsintervensies dien as motivering om intervensies te ondersoek wat nie net kinders met ADHD diagnoses, se gedragsprobleme aanspreek nie, maar ook hul emosionele-, sosiale- en ontwikkelingsbehoeftes (Goodman & Linn, 2003; Seltzer & Krauss, 2001). Kind-gesentreerde spelterapie (CCPT) is ‘n non-direktiewe benadering tot spelterapie tussen kind en terapeut. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die effektiwiteit van CCPT sessies as intervensie om gedrags- en emosionele probleme soos waargeneem deur onderwysers en ouers, te ondersoek by kinders met ADHD diagnoses. ‘n Kwantitatiewe metodologie binne ‘n kwasi-eksperimentele ontwerp, en meer spesifiek, ‘n tyd-reeks ontwerp, is gevolg om veranderinge in die kinders se gedrag, emosies en akademiese vordering vanaf ‘n basislyn en deur die intervensie proses na te volg. Kinders wat reeds gediagnoseer was met ADHD, en wat ‘n skool in die Wes-Kaap vir kinders met fisiese en spesifieke leerbehoeftes bywoon, is vir die doel van hierdie studie geïdentifiseer as die populasie. ’n Groep kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 8 en 10 jaar is geselekteer om deel te neem aan die studie. The ‘Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales’ (VADRS) vir kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 6 en 12 jaar is gebruik om data in te samel wat daarna kwantitatief ge-analiseer is. Na analise van die terugvoer deur onderwysers, is gevind dat statisties beduidende verskille bestaan tussen die data tydens ag (8) verskillende punte in tyd. Hierdie verskille het voorgekom in die volgende kategorieë: gekombineerde aandagafleibaarheid en hiperaktiwiteit, uittarting, en lae gemoed (P<0.01); akademiese prestasie (P<0.05); en ‘n neiging tot aandagafleibaarheidand (beduidend by 10%, p=0.09). Geen beduidende verskille is gevind by verskillende punte in tyd, in die hiperaktiwiteit/impulsiwiteit kategorie nie. Na analise van die terugvoer vanaf ouers, oor vier (4) verskillende punte in tyd, is statisties beduidende verskille gevind in al die kategorieë (P<0.01). Analise van die gekombineerde onderwyser/ouer response het statisties beduidende verskille tussen verskeie punte in tyd, in al die kategorieë aangedui (P<0.01). Al lyk die resultate belowend, noodsaak die aard van hierdie studie dit egter om verdere studies te onderneem om die waarde van CCPT as intervensie vir kinders met ADHD diagnoses te bevestig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102688
This item appears in the following collections: