From agriculture to technology: science policy in Zambia since independence

Sililo, Nosiku (2017-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : The national innovation systems of developed countries have been studied and documented, but not much is known about the national innovation systems of developing countries. This is because most developing countries only recently turned their policy attention to national innovation systems and the associated support for science and industry. In addition, many of the indicators used to describe the national innovation systems of developed countries are not sufficiently documented in statistical form in developing countries. Linsu Kim’s technology trajectory framework was used to study the national innovation system of a developing country, namely Zambia, in order to determine if the country is moving from an exporter of raw materials to value addition using the existing national innovation system as compared to the previous one. This was achieved by the collection of science and technology indicators as defined in the Frascati Manual. In addition modifications to the collection of data as outlined by Jacques Gaillard were applied. Jacques Gaillard proposed strategies for defining the lack of data on many indicators relevant to describing a national innovation system in a developing country. The study compares two eras of the Zambian national innovation system, namely that from 1964 to 1995 and from 1996 onwards. This split represents a shift from a command driven economy to a free market economy with an emphasis on innovation and value addition. The thesis focused on three sectors: agriculture, industry and science, as well as the relevant government institutions and ministries tasked with the management of science and technology in Zambia. The thesis concludes by comparing the two innovation systems using Linsu Kim’s adapted model and indicators in order to determine whether Zambia is indeed moving towards value addition (as stated in government policy announcements), and to investigate implications for the new science and technology policy currently in draft form.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die nasionale innovasie sisteme van ontwikkelde lande is reeds bestudeer en gedokumenteer, maar min is bekend oor die nasionale innovasie sisteme van ontwikkelende lande. Dit is so omdat die meeste ontwikkelende lande eers onlangs nasionale beleid oor innovasie sisteme en die gepaardgaande ondersteuning vir wetenskap en industrie probeer vestig het. Verder is baie van die indikatore wat gebruik word om die nasionale innovasie sisteme van ontwikkelde lande te beskryf, nie genoegsaam gedokumenteer in statistiese vorm in ontwikkelende lande nie. Die tesis poog om met behulp van Linsu Kim se tegnologiese trajekraamwerk die tegnologiese trajek van ‘n ontwikkelende land, naamlik Zambie, te bestudeer. Dit word gedoen deur wetenskaps- en tegnologie indikatore soos gedefinieer in die Frascati Handboek te versamel met verstellings soos voorgestel deur Jacques Gaillard oor hoe om die ontwikkelingspeil van lande te bepaal met te min beskikbare data oor die relevante indikatore. Die studie vergelyk twee eras in die Zambiese nasionale innovasie sisteem, naamlik van 1964 tot 1995 en van 1996 tot op hede. Hierdie verdeling verteenwoordig ‘n skuif vanaf ‘n kommunistiese regering na ‘n kapitalistiese sisteem met ‘n klem op innovasie en waarde-toevoeging. Die tesis focus op drie sektore: landbou, industrie, en wetenskap, sowel as die relevante regeringsinstellings en ministeries in beheer van wetenskap en tegnologie in Zambie. Die tesis sluit af deur die twee innovasie sisteme te vergelyk met behulp van Linsu Kim se aangepaste model en indikatore om te probeer vastel of Zambie inderdaad besig is om te beweeg in die rigting van waarde-toevoeging (soos in regeringsbeleid aangekondig) en om implikasies vir die nuwe wetenskap en tegnologie beleid te ondersoek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101074
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