Effects of Nutrifen® and Nutrifen Plus® on reproductive performance and blood profiles of sows

Nel, Xaviera (2017-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the livestock industry, plant-derived products are used as feed additives in order to improve production. Research on phytogenic feed additives has increased in recent years because of the ban on most antibiotic feed additives within the European Union in 1999, which was due to concerns about the development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. There is a vast variety of phytogenic feed additives available, which include spices, herbs and essential oils. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) is a member of the leguminosae family. This annual plant is both a medicinal and culinary herb which has been used for centuries and is mainly cultivated in Northern Africa, Southern Asia and India. Both the leaves and seeds of this herb have been utilised extensively to prepare powders and extracts for medicinal purposes. The seeds have antibacterial and galactogogue properties and stimulate the digestive system in humans . Literature on the use of fenugreek in pigs is limited; with most research having been done on humans. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of fenugreek supplementation on sows and their litters on their reproductive and production performance. The trial utilised 120 sows and their 1480 piglets and extended from the 85th day of gestation until the piglets were weaned at an age of 28 days. The sows were housed in individual crates in the dry sow house and in farrowing crates during lactation. Two commercial fenugreek products, Nutrifen® and Nutrifen Plus®, were used at the levels recommended by the manufacturer. The different treatments were: 1) control (CON), with no fenugreek supplementation; 2) sows supplemented with 0.2% Nutrifen®; 3) sows supplemented with 0.2% Nutrifen Plus®. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of fenugreek supplementation during the last trimester of gestation and during lactation on sow reproductive performance and litter parameters. The production parameters measured were the number of piglets born alive, the number of stillborn piglets, the number of mummified piglets, the litter birth weight (kg), the pre-weaning mortality (%), the piglets weaned per sow, the litter weaning weight (kg), the back fat thickness (mm) of the sows at weaning and the total feed intake during lactation (kg). The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek supplementation during the last trimester of gestation and during lactation on the immunity of sows and their piglets. The biomarkers measured were the white blood cell count, red blood cell count, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin G levels. There was a significant effect (P = 0.025) of the fenugreek supplementation on the back fat thickness of the sows at farrowing but not on the back fat loss during lactation, which is an important factor for subsequent reproductive performance. Overall, there was no significant effect of the fenugreek treatments on the sow reproductive performance, the litter parameters or the blood profiles. Further research is needed to establish the full potential of fenugreek in pigs because the mode of action of fenugreek is still not clear.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In die veebedryf word plantekstrakte al hoe meer algemeen gebruik om produksie van diere te verbeter. Navorsing het die afgelope jare baie toegeneem rakende plant ekstakte wat dien as natuurlike groeipromotors. Dit is as gevolg van die verbanning van die meeste antibiotika gebasseerde groeipromotors in die Europese Unie in 1999 weens die feit dat patogeniese bakterië weerstanbiedig teen antibiotika raak. Daar is ‘n groot verskeidenheid plant gebasseerde groeipromoters beskikbaar wat kruie, speserye en essensiële olies insluit. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) is ‘n meerjarige plant en vorm deel van die peulplant familie. Dit word al vir eeue gebruik vir medisinale doeleindes en as krui in die kookbedryf. Die plant word hoofsaaklik verbou in Noord-Amerika, die suidelike gedeelte van Asië en Indië. Beide die blare en die sade van die kruid word grootskaals gebruik vir die vervaardiging van poeiers en ekstrakte vir medisinale doeleindes. Die sade het ‘n antibakteriese effek en kan ook laktasie en die spysverteringsproses bevorder. Literatuur rakende die effek van fenugreek in varke is beperk en die meeste resultate is oor mense gevind. Daarom is daar besluit om ‘n proef uit te voer om die effek van fenugreek op sôe en hul werpsels te evalueer. Die proef het bestaan uit 120 sôe en hul 1480 varkies. Die proeftydperk was vanaf 85 dae dragtigheid tot-en-met die varkies gespeen was op 28 dae. Die behuising van die sôe gedurende die dragtigheidsperiode was in individuele kratte en gedurende laktasie in individuele kraamkratte. Twee kommersiële fenugreek produkte, Nurifen® en Nurtrifen Plus®, was gebruik teen insluitingsvlakke deur die verskaffer aanbeveel. Die verskillende behandelings was: 1) kontrole groep (CON) met geen byvoeging; 2) Nurifen ® byvoeging teen 0.2% insluiting; 3) Nutrifen Plus® byvoeging teen 0.2% insluiting. Die hoofdoel van hierdie eksperiment was om die effek van fenugreek-byvoeging vanaf 85 dae dragtigheid en gedurende laktasie op die sog en werpsel produksie parameters te toets. Die produksie parameters wat vir die varkprodusent belangrik is, sluit in aantal varkies lewendig gebore, aantal varkies dood gebore, aantal gemummifiseerde varkies, die werpsel geboortegewig (kg), die voorspeense mortaliteit van die varkies (%), aantal varkies gespeen per sog, die werpsel speengewig (kg), die spekdikte (mm) van die sôe op speen en die totale voerinname (kg) gedurende laktasie. Die tweede doel was om die effek van ‘n fenugreek aanvulling op immuniteit van sôe en hul werpsels te evalueer. Die proeftydperk was dieselfdeDie biomerkers wat gebruik was, was witbloedseltelling, rooibloedseltelling, limfosiete en immunoglobuliene G. Vanuit die studie is getoon dat die fenugreek-aanvulling ‘n effek gehad het op die spekdikte van die sôe op speen (P = 0.025), maar daar was egter nie ‘n effek op die spekdikte verlies gedurende die laktasie nie. Die spekdikte verlies is die belangrike faktor vir toekomstige produksie. Geen groot verskille is waargeneen met die fenugreek-aanvullings op die sog en werpsels se produksie parameters asook hul bloedprofiele nie. Verdere navorsing is nodig om die volle potensiaal van fenugreek in varke te ondersoek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101047
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