Improving feeding efficiencies of black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera : Stratiomyidae : Hermetiinae) through manipulation of feeding conditions for industrial mass rearing

Brits, Devon (2017-03)

Thesis (MScConsEcol)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The human population is rapidly expanding and raises several concerns in terms of food security and waste management. To feed the human population, we need to start expanding our horizons in terms of what we eat. Insects may be the answer to this. But due to our many other problems, it helps to create multiple solutions from single ideas that promote green industry and help ‘heal’ our planet rather than only taking from it. This is where the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) may offer such a solution. Hermetia illucens is a non-pestilent fly that has spread worldwide due to its many innovative uses, for example used as a type of biological control agent for some filth fly species, recycle 1.3 billion tonnes of annual organic waste globally, create high-grade biodiesel and replace (or at least alleviate the demand) for fish or legume-based animal feeds and lipids. However, very little is known about how the protein and lipid rich larvae can be mass reared for industrial purposes. This thesis answers questions about the feeding environment and density of H. illucens larvae in an industrial setting (i.e. food waste, and larger population sizes). By investigating how feed depth and particle size, feed provisioning rations (i.e. larval densities), and population sizes effect the ability of larvae to develop, survive and feed. The results of this thesis were finding the optimal feed depths (i.e. 5-10 cm), provisioning rations (125 mg/larva/day) and population sizes (5 000-50 000 larvae per container) of H. illucens larvae when fed kitchen wastes. Additionally, two new measures of feeding efficiencies were described (i.e. provisioning ration change and optimal bioconversion deficit) and values for larval aggregation heat were also recorded for the first time. Future recommendations and research that came up during this study is also given to continue furthering an industry capitalising on US$ 750 million lost annually in all waste streams worldwide.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die menslike bevolking is besig om vinnig uit te brei, wat verskeie bekommernisse wek ten opsigte van voedselsekuriteit en afvalbestuur. Om die menslike bevolking te voed, moet ons begin om ons horisonne te verbreed in terme van wat ons eet. Insekte sal waarskynlik die antwoord hierop wees. Maar as gevolg van ons baie ander probleme, help dit om verskeie oplossings te skep vanuit enkele idees wat groen bedryf bevorder en wat help om ons planeet te genees eerder as om daarvan te neem. Dit is waar die swart soldaatvlieg, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) 'n oplossing kan bied. Hermetia illucens is 'n nie-pes vlieg wat wêreldwyd versprei het as gevolg van die vele innoverende doeleindes waarvoor dit gebruik kan word, byvoorbeeld as ʼn biologiese beheeragent vir verskeie vullis vliegspesies, vir die herwinning van ʼn jaarlikse 1,3 miljard ton organiese afval wêreldwyd, vir die vervaardiging van hoë-graad biodiesel en die vervanging van (of ten minste verligting van die aanvraag na) vis of peulplant gebaseerde veevoere en lipiede. Baie min is egter bekend oor hoe die proteïen- en lipiedryke larwes in groot maat geteel kan word vir industriële doeleindes. Hierdie tesis beantwoord vrae oor die voedingsomgewing en bevolkingsdigtheid van H. illucens larwes in 'n industriële omgewing (m.a.w. voedselafval en groter bevolkingsgroottes). Dit is gedoen deur te ondersoek hoe voerdiepte en partikelgrootte, voer voorsieningsrantsoene (d.w.s. larwedigthede), en bevolkingsgroottes die vermoë van larwes om te ontwikkel, oorleef en voed, beinvloed. Die resultate van hierdie tesis het die optimale voerdieptes (d.w.s. 5-10 cm), voorsieningsrantsoene (125 mg / larwe / dag) en bevolkingsgroottes (5 000-50 000 larwes per houer) van H. Illucens vasgestel vir larwes wat met kombuisafval gevoer is. Daarbenewens is twee nuwe maatreëls van voedingsdoeltreffendheid beskryf (d.w.s. voorsieningsrantsoen verandering en optimale bio-omsetting), en waardes vir larwale samedrommingshitte is ook aangeteken vir die eerste keer. Toekomstige aanbevelings en navorsing wat in hierdie studie na vore gekom word ook gegee om voort te gaan om 'n bedryf te bevorder wat kapitaliseer op 750 miljoen USD wat jaarliks in afvalstrome wêreldwyd verlore gaan.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100812
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